Disease severity, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal deaths among pregnant patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in Washington State.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 07; 225(1):77.e1-77.e14.AJ
Evidence is accumulating that coronavirus disease 2019 increases the risk of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation in pregnant patients and for preterm delivery. However, the impact on maternal mortality and whether morbidity is differentially affected by disease severity at delivery and trimester of infection are unknown.
This study aimed to describe disease severity and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in pregnancy across the Washington State, including pregnancy complications and outcomes, hospitalization, and case fatality.
Pregnant patients with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, were identified in a multicenter retrospective cohort study from 35 sites in Washington State. Sites captured 61% of annual state deliveries. Case-fatality rates in pregnancy were compared with coronavirus disease 2019 fatality rates in similarly aged adults in Washington State using rate ratios and rate differences. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared by trimester of infection and disease severity at the time of delivery.
The principal study findings were as follows: (1) among 240 pregnant patients in Washington State with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections, 1 in 11 developed severe or critical disease, 1 in 10 were hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, and 1 in 80 died; (2) the coronavirus disease 2019-associated hospitalization rate was 3.5-fold higher than in similarly aged adults in Washington State (10.0% vs 2.8%; rate ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-5.3); (3) pregnant patients hospitalized for a respiratory concern were more likely to have a comorbidity or underlying conditions including asthma, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disease, and class III obesity; (4) 3 maternal deaths (1.3%) were attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 for a maternal mortality rate of 1250 of 100,000 pregnancies (95% confidence interval, 257-3653); (5) the coronavirus disease 2019 case fatality in pregnancy was a significant 13.6-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.7-43.6) higher in pregnant patients than in similarly aged individuals in Washington State with an absolute difference in mortality rate of 1.2% (95% confidence interval, -0.3 to 2.6); and (6) preterm birth was significantly higher among women with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 at delivery than for women who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (45.4% severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 vs 5.2% mild coronavirus disease 2019; P<.001).
Coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalization and case-fatality rates in pregnant patients were significantly higher than in similarly aged adults in Washington State. These data indicate that pregnant patients are at risk of severe or critical disease and mortality compared to nonpregnant adults, and also at risk for preterm birth.