Effects of nano-chitosan coatings incorporating with free /nano-encapsulated cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) essential oil on quality characteristics of sardine fillet.Int J Food Microbiol. 2021 Mar 02; 341:109047.IJ
Nowadays, adding biological compounds to food packaging is one of the types of active packaging. The aim of this study was to prepare a new degradable coating with free and nano-encapsulated Cumino cyminum L. essential oil (CCEO) with nanochitosan (Nch) base to evaluate the microbial, chemical and sensory properties of sardine fillet samples for 16 days at 4 °C. Nanoliposome using different soy lecithin ratios and cholesterol concentrations (60:0, 50:10, 40:20, and 30:30) and technique of thin-film hydration-sonication, were prepared with a range of 140-164 nm size. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and distribution of nanoliposomes size were calculated 0.80-0.90 and 49.85-73.01% respectively. To coat sardine fillet samples, nanoliposomes with the lower size of droplet and higher EE percent were selected. The outcomes indicated that coating treatments can effectively inhibit microbial growth and chemical spoilage reflected at lower pH, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) (P < 0.05). In fact, the results of chemical and microbiological characteristics showed that the samples treated with nanocitosan/nano essential oil (NEO) showed the lowest value among other treatments during the experimental period, in the following, Nch-EO, Nch and control. pH, PV, TBARs, total viable counts (TVC), total pseudomonads count (TPC), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were 6.85, 0.03 (mg MDA/kg), 5.23 (mEq/kg), 3.67 (CFU/g), 3.47 (CFU/g), and 4.7 (CFU/g), respectively for Nch-NEO at the end of storage time. In addition, during the experimental period, the highest sensory properties were obtained for the Nch-NEO group. Encapsulation of CCEO reduces the rate of diffusion, thus increasing antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, as well as improving sensory properties. According to the results of this study, CCEO-encapsulated nanochitosan coatings can be used as a potent coating to increase sardine shelf life.