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Recovery scenario and immunity in COVID-19 disease: A new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection.
J Adv Res. 2021 07; 31:49-60.JA

Abstract

Background

The recent ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), still is an unsolved problem with a growing rate of infected cases and mortality worldwide. The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is targeting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and mostly causes a respiratory illness. Although acquired and resistance immunity is one of the most important aspects of alleviating the trend of the current pandemic; however, there is still a big gap of knowledge regarding the infection process, immunopathogenesis, recovery, and reinfection.

Aim of Review

To answer the questions regarding "the potential and probability of reinfection in COVID-19 infected cases" or "the efficiency and duration of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced immunity against reinfection" we critically evaluated the current reports on SARS-CoV-2 immunity and reinfection with special emphasis on comparative studies using animal models that generalize their finding about protection and reinfection. Also, the contribution of humoral immunity in the process of COVID-19 recovery and the role of ACE2 in virus infectivity and pathogenesis has been discussed. Furthermore, innate and cellular immunity and inflammatory responses in the disease and recovery conditions are reviewed and an overall outline of immunologic aspects of COVID-19 progression and recovery in three different stages are presented. Finally, we categorized the infected cases into four different groups based on the acquired immunity and the potential for reinfection.

Key Scientific Concepts of Review

In this review paper, we proposed a new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection in each identified category. This classification may help to distribute resources more meticulously to determine: who needs to be serologically tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, what percentage of the population is immune to the virus, and who needs to be vaccinated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Department of Interdisciplinary Life Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.Departments of Environmental Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Japan. Health Management Center, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Interdisciplinary Life Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33520309

Citation

Khoshkam, Zahra, et al. "Recovery Scenario and Immunity in COVID-19 Disease: a New Strategy to Predict the Potential of Reinfection." Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 31, 2021, pp. 49-60.
Khoshkam Z, Aftabi Y, Stenvinkel P, et al. Recovery scenario and immunity in COVID-19 disease: A new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection. J Adv Res. 2021;31:49-60.
Khoshkam, Z., Aftabi, Y., Stenvinkel, P., Paige Lawrence, B., Rezaei, M. H., Ichihara, G., & Fereidouni, S. (2021). Recovery scenario and immunity in COVID-19 disease: A new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection. Journal of Advanced Research, 31, 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.12.013
Khoshkam Z, et al. Recovery Scenario and Immunity in COVID-19 Disease: a New Strategy to Predict the Potential of Reinfection. J Adv Res. 2021;31:49-60. PubMed PMID: 33520309.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Recovery scenario and immunity in COVID-19 disease: A new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection. AU - Khoshkam,Zahra, AU - Aftabi,Younes, AU - Stenvinkel,Peter, AU - Paige Lawrence,B, AU - Rezaei,Mehran Habibi, AU - Ichihara,Gaku, AU - Fereidouni,Sasan, Y1 - 2021/01/05/ PY - 2020/08/14/received PY - 2020/12/25/revised PY - 2020/12/26/accepted PY - 2021/2/2/pubmed PY - 2021/7/7/medline PY - 2021/2/1/entrez KW - ACE2, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 KW - ADE, Antibody-dependent enhancement KW - ARDS, Acute respiratory distress syndrome KW - Ang II, Angiotensin II KW - BAL, Bronchoalveolar lavage KW - COVID-19 KW - COVID-19, Coronavirus disease 2019 KW - Coronavirus KW - ERS, Early recovery stage KW - FcR, Fc receptor KW - ISGs, Interferon-stimulated genes KW - Immunity KW - LRS, Late recovery stage KW - N, Nucleocapsid KW - NAb, Neutralizing antibody KW - NK, Natural killer KW - PBMCs, Peripheral blood mononuclear cells KW - PSO, Post symptom onset KW - RBD, Receptor-binding domain KW - RT-PCR, Real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction KW - Recovery KW - Reinfection KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - SARS-CoV-2, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 KW - sACE2, Soluble ACE2 SP - 49 EP - 60 JF - Journal of advanced research JO - J Adv Res VL - 31 N2 - Background: The recent ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), still is an unsolved problem with a growing rate of infected cases and mortality worldwide. The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is targeting the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and mostly causes a respiratory illness. Although acquired and resistance immunity is one of the most important aspects of alleviating the trend of the current pandemic; however, there is still a big gap of knowledge regarding the infection process, immunopathogenesis, recovery, and reinfection. Aim of Review: To answer the questions regarding "the potential and probability of reinfection in COVID-19 infected cases" or "the efficiency and duration of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced immunity against reinfection" we critically evaluated the current reports on SARS-CoV-2 immunity and reinfection with special emphasis on comparative studies using animal models that generalize their finding about protection and reinfection. Also, the contribution of humoral immunity in the process of COVID-19 recovery and the role of ACE2 in virus infectivity and pathogenesis has been discussed. Furthermore, innate and cellular immunity and inflammatory responses in the disease and recovery conditions are reviewed and an overall outline of immunologic aspects of COVID-19 progression and recovery in three different stages are presented. Finally, we categorized the infected cases into four different groups based on the acquired immunity and the potential for reinfection. Key Scientific Concepts of Review: In this review paper, we proposed a new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection in each identified category. This classification may help to distribute resources more meticulously to determine: who needs to be serologically tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, what percentage of the population is immune to the virus, and who needs to be vaccinated. SN - 2090-1224 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33520309/Recovery_scenario_and_immunity_in_COVID_19_disease:_A_new_strategy_to_predict_the_potential_of_reinfection_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2090-1232(20)30263-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -