Effect of Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Synbiotic Supplementation on Cardiometabolic and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.Clin Ther. 2021 03; 43(3):e71-e96.CT
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Evidence supporting the use of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation in the management of CKD is mixed, although some studies suggest they may be useful. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation for improving cardiometabolic and oxidative stress parameters in patients with CKD.
A comprehensive key word search was performed in EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science until April 2020. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of probiotic, synbiotic, and prebiotic supplementation for the management of adults with CKD were included. Primary outcomes were measures of cardiometabolic parameters such as cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. Secondary outcomes were measures of oxidative stress (eg, malondialdehyde levels) and body mass index. Random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean treatment effects. Results are reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% CIs.
Fourteen articles were included. In patients with CKD, probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.04; I2 = 00.0%), fasting blood glucose (SMD, -0.41; 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.17; I2 = 00.0%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (SMD, -0.63; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.30; I2 = 43.3%), insulin levels (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.90 to -0.08; I2 = 65.2%), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (SMD, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.22; I2 = 52.7%), and malondialdehyde levels (SMD, -0.79; 95% CI, -1.22 to -0.37; I2 = 69.8%) compared with control interventions. Supplementation significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (SMD, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.05; I2 = 00.0%), total antioxidant capacity (SMD, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.66; I2 = 00.0%), and glutathione levels (SMD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.86; I2 = 37.0%).
Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation seems to be a promising intervention for improving cardiometabolic and oxidative stress parameters in patients with CKD.