Infection and disease spectrum in individuals with household exposure to SARS-CoV-2: A family cluster cohort study.J Med Virol. 2021 May; 93(5):3033-3046.JM
We primarily quantified exposure patterns, transmission characteristics, and the clinical spectrum of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among household contacts of individuals with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 20 index patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 and 79 of their household contacts. We determined the transmission frequency, range of manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors associated with infection in household settings. Of the 79 household contacts, 53 (67%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection (49 [62%] symptomatic, 4 [5%] asymptomatic). Eight patients (10%) developed severe COVID-19, and one died of COVID-19 pneumonia (case-fatality rate: 1.9%). The probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar in children and adults (55% vs. 72%, p = .14), with children being less likely to develop the symptomatic disease (46% vs. 68%, p = .06). Handwashing ≥ 5 times/day was associated with reduced infection risk (52.8% vs. 76.9%, p = .04). SARS-CoV-2 has a high frequency of transmission among household contacts. Nonhospitalized individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be quarantined in patient care facilities rather than at home to minimize spread, if possible, and frequent handwashing should be practiced to prevent transmission.