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Is the Occurrence of the Sticking Region in Maximum Smith Machine Squats the Result of Diminishing Potentiation and Co-Contraction of the Prime Movers among Recreationally Resistance Trained Males?
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 02 02; 18(3)IJ

Abstract

This study compared the kinetics, barbell, and joint kinematics and muscle activation patterns between a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) Smith machine squat and isometric squats performed at 10 different heights from the lowest barbell height. The aim was to investigate if force output is lowest in the sticking region, indicating that this is a poor biomechanical region. Twelve resistance trained males (age: 22 ± 5 years, mass: 83.5 ± 39 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.20 m) were tested. A repeated two-way analysis of variance showed that Force output decreased in the sticking region for the 1-RM trial, while for the isometric trials, force output was lowest between 0-15 cm from the lowest barbell height, data that support the sticking region is a poor biomechanical region. Almost all muscles showed higher activity at 1-RM compared with isometric attempts (p < 0.05). The quadriceps activity decreased, and the gluteus maximus and shank muscle activity increased with increasing height (p ≤ 0.024). Moreover, the vastus muscles decreased only for the 1-RM trial while remaining stable at the same positions in the isometric trials (p = 0.04), indicating that potentiation occurs. Our findings suggest that a co-contraction between the hip and knee extensors, together with potentiation from the vastus muscles during ascent, creates a poor biomechanical region for force output, and thereby the sticking region among recreationally resistance trained males during 1-RM Smith machine squats.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Nord University, 7600 Levanger, Norway.Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Nord University, 7600 Levanger, Norway.Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Nord University, 7600 Levanger, Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33540938

Citation

van den Tillaar, Roland, et al. "Is the Occurrence of the Sticking Region in Maximum Smith Machine Squats the Result of Diminishing Potentiation and Co-Contraction of the Prime Movers Among Recreationally Resistance Trained Males?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 18, no. 3, 2021.
van den Tillaar R, Kristiansen EL, Larsen S. Is the Occurrence of the Sticking Region in Maximum Smith Machine Squats the Result of Diminishing Potentiation and Co-Contraction of the Prime Movers among Recreationally Resistance Trained Males? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(3).
van den Tillaar, R., Kristiansen, E. L., & Larsen, S. (2021). Is the Occurrence of the Sticking Region in Maximum Smith Machine Squats the Result of Diminishing Potentiation and Co-Contraction of the Prime Movers among Recreationally Resistance Trained Males? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031366
van den Tillaar R, Kristiansen EL, Larsen S. Is the Occurrence of the Sticking Region in Maximum Smith Machine Squats the Result of Diminishing Potentiation and Co-Contraction of the Prime Movers Among Recreationally Resistance Trained Males. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 02 2;18(3) PubMed PMID: 33540938.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Is the Occurrence of the Sticking Region in Maximum Smith Machine Squats the Result of Diminishing Potentiation and Co-Contraction of the Prime Movers among Recreationally Resistance Trained Males? AU - van den Tillaar,Roland, AU - Kristiansen,Eirik Lindset, AU - Larsen,Stian, Y1 - 2021/02/02/ PY - 2021/01/07/received PY - 2021/01/27/revised PY - 2021/01/29/accepted PY - 2021/2/5/entrez PY - 2021/2/6/pubmed PY - 2021/3/26/medline KW - electromyography (EMG) KW - isometric force KW - strength JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 18 IS - 3 N2 - This study compared the kinetics, barbell, and joint kinematics and muscle activation patterns between a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) Smith machine squat and isometric squats performed at 10 different heights from the lowest barbell height. The aim was to investigate if force output is lowest in the sticking region, indicating that this is a poor biomechanical region. Twelve resistance trained males (age: 22 ± 5 years, mass: 83.5 ± 39 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.20 m) were tested. A repeated two-way analysis of variance showed that Force output decreased in the sticking region for the 1-RM trial, while for the isometric trials, force output was lowest between 0-15 cm from the lowest barbell height, data that support the sticking region is a poor biomechanical region. Almost all muscles showed higher activity at 1-RM compared with isometric attempts (p < 0.05). The quadriceps activity decreased, and the gluteus maximus and shank muscle activity increased with increasing height (p ≤ 0.024). Moreover, the vastus muscles decreased only for the 1-RM trial while remaining stable at the same positions in the isometric trials (p = 0.04), indicating that potentiation occurs. Our findings suggest that a co-contraction between the hip and knee extensors, together with potentiation from the vastus muscles during ascent, creates a poor biomechanical region for force output, and thereby the sticking region among recreationally resistance trained males during 1-RM Smith machine squats. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33540938/Is_the_Occurrence_of_the_Sticking_Region_in_Maximum_Smith_Machine_Squats_the_Result_of_Diminishing_Potentiation_and_Co_Contraction_of_the_Prime_Movers_among_Recreationally_Resistance_Trained_Males L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph18031366 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -