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Trend in potassium intake and Na/K ratio in the Italian adult population between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE project surveys.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 03 10; 31(3):814-826.NM

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Low potassium intake, in addition to high sodium, has been associated with higher risk of hypertension and CVD. The Study assessed habitual potassium intake and sodium/potassium ratio of the Italian adult population from 2008 to 2012 to 2018-2019 based on 24-h urine collection, in the framework of the CUORE Project/MINISAL-GIRCSI/MENO SALE PIU' SALUTE national surveys.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Data were from cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected age-and-sex stratified samples of resident persons aged 35-74 years in 10 (out of 20) Italian regions. Urinary electrolyte and creatinine measurements were performed in a central laboratory. Analyses considered 942 men and 916 women, examined in 2008-2012, and 967 men and 1010 women, examined in 2018-2019. In 2008-2012, the age-standardized mean of potassium intake (urinary potassium accounts for 70% of potassium intake) was 3147 mg (95% CI 3086-3208) in men and 2784 mg (2727-2841) in women, whereas in 2018-2019, it was 3043 mg (2968-3118) and 2561 mg (2508-2614) respectively. In 2008-2012, age-adjusted prevalence of persons with an adequate potassium intake (i.e. ≥ 3510 mg/day) was 31% (95% CI 28-34%) for men and 18% (16-21%) for women; in 2018-2019, it was 26% (23-29%) and 12% (10-14%) respectively. The sodium/potassium ratio significantly decreased both in men and women.

CONCLUSIONS

The average daily potassium intake of the Italian general adult population remains lower than the WHO and EFSA recommended level. These results suggest the need of a revision to strengthen initiatives for the promotion of an adequate potassium intake at the population level.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. Electronic address: chiara.donfrancesco@iss.it.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy.Italian Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy.Italian Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy.University Hospital and Health Services of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; National Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO), Florence, Italy.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome.Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: pasquale.strazzullo@unina.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33546944

Citation

Donfrancesco, Chiara, et al. "Trend in Potassium Intake and Na/K Ratio in the Italian Adult Population Between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE Project Surveys." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 31, no. 3, 2021, pp. 814-826.
Donfrancesco C, Lo Noce C, Russo O, et al. Trend in potassium intake and Na/K ratio in the Italian adult population between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE project surveys. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2021;31(3):814-826.
Donfrancesco, C., Lo Noce, C., Russo, O., Buttari, B., Profumo, E., Minutoli, D., Di Lonardo, A., Iacone, R., Vespasiano, F., Vannucchi, S., Onder, G., Galletti, F., Galeone, D., Bellisario, P., Di Lenarda, A., Giampaoli, S., Palmieri, L., & Strazzullo, P. (2021). Trend in potassium intake and Na/K ratio in the Italian adult population between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE project surveys. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 31(3), 814-826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.11.015
Donfrancesco C, et al. Trend in Potassium Intake and Na/K Ratio in the Italian Adult Population Between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE Project Surveys. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 03 10;31(3):814-826. PubMed PMID: 33546944.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Trend in potassium intake and Na/K ratio in the Italian adult population between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE project surveys. AU - Donfrancesco,Chiara, AU - Lo Noce,Cinzia, AU - Russo,Ornella, AU - Buttari,Brigitta, AU - Profumo,Elisabetta, AU - Minutoli,Daniela, AU - Di Lonardo,Anna, AU - Iacone,Roberto, AU - Vespasiano,Francesca, AU - Vannucchi,Serena, AU - Onder,Graziano, AU - Galletti,Ferruccio, AU - Galeone,Daniela, AU - Bellisario,Paolo, AU - Di Lenarda,Andrea, AU - Giampaoli,Simona, AU - Palmieri,Luigi, AU - Strazzullo,Pasquale, Y1 - 2020/11/23/ PY - 2020/09/19/received PY - 2020/11/11/revised PY - 2020/11/14/accepted PY - 2021/2/7/pubmed PY - 2021/2/7/medline PY - 2021/2/6/entrez KW - Epidemiology KW - Nutrition KW - Public health SP - 814 EP - 826 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 31 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low potassium intake, in addition to high sodium, has been associated with higher risk of hypertension and CVD. The Study assessed habitual potassium intake and sodium/potassium ratio of the Italian adult population from 2008 to 2012 to 2018-2019 based on 24-h urine collection, in the framework of the CUORE Project/MINISAL-GIRCSI/MENO SALE PIU' SALUTE national surveys. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were from cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected age-and-sex stratified samples of resident persons aged 35-74 years in 10 (out of 20) Italian regions. Urinary electrolyte and creatinine measurements were performed in a central laboratory. Analyses considered 942 men and 916 women, examined in 2008-2012, and 967 men and 1010 women, examined in 2018-2019. In 2008-2012, the age-standardized mean of potassium intake (urinary potassium accounts for 70% of potassium intake) was 3147 mg (95% CI 3086-3208) in men and 2784 mg (2727-2841) in women, whereas in 2018-2019, it was 3043 mg (2968-3118) and 2561 mg (2508-2614) respectively. In 2008-2012, age-adjusted prevalence of persons with an adequate potassium intake (i.e. ≥ 3510 mg/day) was 31% (95% CI 28-34%) for men and 18% (16-21%) for women; in 2018-2019, it was 26% (23-29%) and 12% (10-14%) respectively. The sodium/potassium ratio significantly decreased both in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The average daily potassium intake of the Italian general adult population remains lower than the WHO and EFSA recommended level. These results suggest the need of a revision to strengthen initiatives for the promotion of an adequate potassium intake at the population level. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33546944/Trend_in_potassium_intake_and_Na/K_ratio_in_the_Italian_adult_population_between_the_2008_and_2018_CUORE_project_surveys_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(20)30492-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -