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Effect of Personalized Incentives on Dietary Quality of Groceries Purchased: A Randomized Crossover Trial.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021 02 01; 4(2):e2030921.JN

Abstract

Importance

Many factors are associated with food choice. Personalized interventions could help improve dietary intake by using individual purchasing preferences to promote healthier grocery purchases.

Objective

To test whether a healthy food incentive intervention using an algorithm incorporating customer preferences, purchase history, and baseline diet quality improves grocery purchase dietary quality and spending on healthy foods.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This was a 9-month randomized clinical crossover trial (AB-BA) with a 2- to 4-week washout period between 3-month intervention periods. Participants included 224 loyalty program members at an independent Rhode Island supermarket who completed baseline questionnaires and were randomized from July to September 2018 to group 1 (AB) or group 2 (BA). Data analysis was performed from September 2019 to May 2020.

Intervention

Participants received personalized weekly coupons with nutrition education during the intervention period (A) and occasional generic coupons with nutrition education during the control period (B). An automated study algorithm used customer data to allocate personalized healthy food incentives to participant loyalty cards. All participants received a 5% grocery discount.

Main Outcomes and Measures

Grocery Purchase Quality Index-2016 (GPQI-16) scores (range, 0-75, with higher scores denoting healthier purchases) and percentage spending on targeted foods were calculated from cumulative purchasing data. Participants in the top and bottom 1% of spending were excluded. Paired t tests examined between-group differences.

Results

The analytical sample included 209 participants (104 in group 1 and 105 in group 2), with a mean (SD) age of 55.4 (14.0) years. They were predominantly non-Hispanic White (193 of 206 participants [94.1%]) and female (187 of 207 participants [90.3%]). Of 161 participants with income data, 81 (50.3%) had annual household incomes greater than or equal to $100 000. Paired t tests showed that the intervention increased GPQI-16 scores (between-group difference, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.27-1.86; P = .01) and percentage spending on targeted foods (between-group difference, 1.38%; 95% CI, 0.08%-2.69%; P = .04). During the initial intervention period, group 1 (AB) and group 2 (BA) had similar mean (SD) GPQI-16 scores (41.2 [6.6] vs 41.0 [7.5]) and mean (SD) percentage spending on targeted healthy foods (32.0% [10.8%] vs 31.0% [10.5%]). During the crossover intervention period, group 2 had a higher mean (SD) GPQI-16 score than group 1 (42.9 [7.7] vs 41.0 [6.8]) and mean (SD) percentage spending on targeted foods (34.0% [12.1%] vs 32.0% [13.1%]).

Conclusions and Relevance

This pilot trial demonstrated preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a novel personalized healthy food incentive algorithm to improve grocery purchase dietary quality.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03748056.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.Marketing Area, College of Business Administration, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.AgroParis Tech, Paris, France.Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.Marketing Area, College of Business Administration, University of Rhode Island, Kingston.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33566105

Citation

Vadiveloo, Maya, et al. "Effect of Personalized Incentives On Dietary Quality of Groceries Purchased: a Randomized Crossover Trial." JAMA Network Open, vol. 4, no. 2, 2021, pp. e2030921.
Vadiveloo M, Guan X, Parker HW, et al. Effect of Personalized Incentives on Dietary Quality of Groceries Purchased: A Randomized Crossover Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(2):e2030921.
Vadiveloo, M., Guan, X., Parker, H. W., Perraud, E., Buchanan, A., Atlas, S., & Thorndike, A. N. (2021). Effect of Personalized Incentives on Dietary Quality of Groceries Purchased: A Randomized Crossover Trial. JAMA Network Open, 4(2), e2030921. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30921
Vadiveloo M, et al. Effect of Personalized Incentives On Dietary Quality of Groceries Purchased: a Randomized Crossover Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 02 1;4(2):e2030921. PubMed PMID: 33566105.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of Personalized Incentives on Dietary Quality of Groceries Purchased: A Randomized Crossover Trial. AU - Vadiveloo,Maya, AU - Guan,Xintong, AU - Parker,Haley W, AU - Perraud,Elie, AU - Buchanan,Ashley, AU - Atlas,Stephen, AU - Thorndike,Anne N, Y1 - 2021/02/01/ PY - 2021/2/10/entrez PY - 2021/2/11/pubmed PY - 2021/4/13/medline SP - e2030921 EP - e2030921 JF - JAMA network open JO - JAMA Netw Open VL - 4 IS - 2 N2 - Importance: Many factors are associated with food choice. Personalized interventions could help improve dietary intake by using individual purchasing preferences to promote healthier grocery purchases. Objective: To test whether a healthy food incentive intervention using an algorithm incorporating customer preferences, purchase history, and baseline diet quality improves grocery purchase dietary quality and spending on healthy foods. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a 9-month randomized clinical crossover trial (AB-BA) with a 2- to 4-week washout period between 3-month intervention periods. Participants included 224 loyalty program members at an independent Rhode Island supermarket who completed baseline questionnaires and were randomized from July to September 2018 to group 1 (AB) or group 2 (BA). Data analysis was performed from September 2019 to May 2020. Intervention: Participants received personalized weekly coupons with nutrition education during the intervention period (A) and occasional generic coupons with nutrition education during the control period (B). An automated study algorithm used customer data to allocate personalized healthy food incentives to participant loyalty cards. All participants received a 5% grocery discount. Main Outcomes and Measures: Grocery Purchase Quality Index-2016 (GPQI-16) scores (range, 0-75, with higher scores denoting healthier purchases) and percentage spending on targeted foods were calculated from cumulative purchasing data. Participants in the top and bottom 1% of spending were excluded. Paired t tests examined between-group differences. Results: The analytical sample included 209 participants (104 in group 1 and 105 in group 2), with a mean (SD) age of 55.4 (14.0) years. They were predominantly non-Hispanic White (193 of 206 participants [94.1%]) and female (187 of 207 participants [90.3%]). Of 161 participants with income data, 81 (50.3%) had annual household incomes greater than or equal to $100 000. Paired t tests showed that the intervention increased GPQI-16 scores (between-group difference, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.27-1.86; P = .01) and percentage spending on targeted foods (between-group difference, 1.38%; 95% CI, 0.08%-2.69%; P = .04). During the initial intervention period, group 1 (AB) and group 2 (BA) had similar mean (SD) GPQI-16 scores (41.2 [6.6] vs 41.0 [7.5]) and mean (SD) percentage spending on targeted healthy foods (32.0% [10.8%] vs 31.0% [10.5%]). During the crossover intervention period, group 2 had a higher mean (SD) GPQI-16 score than group 1 (42.9 [7.7] vs 41.0 [6.8]) and mean (SD) percentage spending on targeted foods (34.0% [12.1%] vs 32.0% [13.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: This pilot trial demonstrated preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a novel personalized healthy food incentive algorithm to improve grocery purchase dietary quality. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03748056. SN - 2574-3805 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33566105/Effect_of_Personalized_Incentives_on_Dietary_Quality_of_Groceries_Purchased:_A_Randomized_Crossover_Trial_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30921 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -