The effect of changing foot progression angle using real-time visual feedback on rearfoot eversion during running.PLoS One. 2021; 16(2):e0246425.Plos
Atypical rearfoot in/eversion may be an important risk factor for running-related injuries. Prominent interventions for atypical rearfoot eversion include foot orthoses, footwear, and taping but a modification derived from gait retraining to correct atypical rearfoot in/eversion is lacking. We aimed to investigate changes in rearfoot in/eversion, subtalar pronation, medial longitudinal arch angle, and selected lower limb joint biomechanics while performing toe-in/toe-out running using real-time visual feedback. Fifteen female runners participated in this study. Subjects performed toe-in/toe-out running using real-time visual feedback on foot progression angle, which was set ±5° from habitual foot progression angle. 3D kinematics of rearfoot in/eversion, subtalar supination/pronation, medial longitudinal arch angle, foot progression angle, hip flexion, ab/adduction and internal/external rotation, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexion, and ankle power were analyzed. A repeated-measures ANOVA followed by pairwise comparisons was used to analyze changes between three conditions. Toe-in running compared to normal and toe-out running reduced peak rearfoot eversion (mean difference (MD) with normal = 2.1°; p<0.001, MD with toe-out = 3.5°; p<0.001), peak pronation (MD with normal = -2.0°; p<0.001, MD with toe-out = -3.4; p = <0.001), and peak medial longitudinal arch angle (MD with normal = -0.7°; p = 0.022, MD with toe-out = -0.9; p = 0.005). Toe-out running significantly increased these kinematic factors compared to normal and toe-in running. Toe-in running compared to normal running increased peak hip internal rotation (MD = 2.3; p<0.001), and reduced peak knee flexion (MD = 1.3; p = 0.014). Toe-out running compared to normal running reduced peak hip internal rotation (MD = 2.5; p<0.001), peak hip ab/adduction (MD = 2.5; p<0.001), peak knee flexion (MD = 1.5; p = 0.003), peak ankle dorsiflexion (MD = 1.6; p<0.001), and peak ankle power (MD = 1.3; p = 0.001). Runners were able to change their foot progression angle when receiving real-time visual feedback for foot progression angle. Toe-in/toe-out running altered rearfoot kinematics and medial longitudinal arch angle, therefore supporting the potential value of gait retraining focused on foot progression angle using real-time visual feedback when atypical rearfoot in/eversion needs to be modified. It should be considered that changes in foot progression angle when running is accompanied by changes in lower limb joint biomechanics.