The effect of soy isoflavones and soy isoflavones plus soy protein on serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Phytother Res. 2021 Jul; 35(7):3575-3589.PR
In this study, we summarized the effect of soy isoflavones and soy isoflavones plus soy protein on serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) among adult participants. We systematically searched Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov for articles published up to May 2020. Effect size was calculated by mean change from baseline of TNF-α concentrations and its standard deviation (SD) for intervention and comparison groups. If the heterogeneity test was statistically significant, DerSimonian and Laird random effects model was used to estimate the summary of the overall effects and its heterogeneity. Nineteen and fourteen randomized clinical trials were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. The result of overall effect size indicated a non-significant effect in serum concentration of TNF-α following soy isoflavones intake (WMD = 0.2 pg/ml, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.53; p = .226) and the combination of soy isoflavones and soy protein intake (WMD = 0.02 pg/ml, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.06; p = .286). Subgroup analyses revealed no significant change in circulatory levels of TNF-α following soy isoflavones plus soy protein intake. In conclusion, the present systematic review and meta-analysis found insufficient evidence that soy isoflavones or the combination of soy isoflavones and soy protein significantly reduce serum concentration of TNF-α.