Small-molecule antiviral agents in ongoing clinical trials for COVID-19.Curr Drug Targets. 2021 Feb 14 [Online ahead of print]CD
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in December 2019 and has rapidly spread globally. As the confirmed number of cases has reached to 83 million worldwide, the potential severity and the deadly complications of the disease requires urgent development of effective drugs for prevention and treatment. No proven effective treatment for this virus currently exists. Most of the antiviral discovery efforts are focused on the repurposing of approved or clinical stage drugs. This review highlights the small-molecule repurposed antiviral agents that are currently under investigation in clinical trials for COVID19. These include viral polymerase and protease inhibitors remdesivir, galidesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin, sofosbuvir, tenofovir/emtricitabine, baloxavir marboxil, EIDD-2801, lopinavir/ritonavir; virus-/host-directed viral entry and fusion inhibitors arbidol chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, chlorpromazine, camostat mesylate, nafamostat mesylate, bromhexine and agents with diverse/unclear mechanism of actions as oseltamivir, triazavirin, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, niclosamide and BLD-2660. The published preclinical and clinical data to date on these drugs as well as the mechanisms of action are reviewed.