Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014.
Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 05 04; 23(5):790-797.NT

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Concurrent use of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes ("dual use") is common among tobacco users. Little is known about differences in demographics and toxicant exposure among subsets of dual users.

AIMS AND METHODS

We analyzed data from adult dual users (current every/some day users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, n = 792) included in the PATH Study Wave 1 (2013-2014) and provided urine samples. Samples were analyzed for biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and selected toxicants (tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK [NNAL], lead, cadmium, naphthalene [2-naphthol], pyrene [1-hydroxypyrene], acrylonitrile [CYMA], acrolein [CEMA], and acrylamide [AAMA]). Subsets of dual users were compared on demographic, behavioral, and biomarker measures to exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 2411) and exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 247).

RESULTS

Most dual users were predominant cigarette smokers (70%), followed by daily dual users (13%), non-daily concurrent dual users (10%), and predominant vapers (7%). Dual users who smoked daily showed significantly higher biomarker concentrations compared with those who did not smoke daily. Patterns of e-cigarette use had little effect on toxicant exposure. Dual users with high toxicant exposure were generally older, female, and smoked more cigarettes per day. Dual users who had low levels of biomarkers of exposure were generally younger, male, and smoked non-daily.

CONCLUSIONS

In 2013-2014, most dual users smoked cigarettes daily and used e-cigarettes occasionally. Cigarette smoking appears to be the primary driver of toxicant exposure among dual users, with little-to-no effect of e-cigarette use on biomarker levels. Results reinforce the need for dual users to stop smoking tobacco cigarettes to reduce toxicant exposure.

IMPLICATIONS

With considerable dual use of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the United States, it is important to understand differences in toxicant exposure among subsets of dual users, and how these differences align with user demographics. Findings suggest most dual users smoke daily and use e-cigarettes intermittently. Low exposure to toxicants was most common among younger users, males, and intermittent smokers; high exposure to toxicants was most common among older users, females, and heavier cigarette smokers. Results underscore the heterogeneity occurring within dual users, and the need to quit smoking cigarettes completely in order to reduce toxicant exposure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD, USA.Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD, USA.Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD, USA.Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD, USA.Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Silver Spring, MD, USA.Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA.Behavioral Health & Health Policy Practice, Westat, Rockville, MD, USA.Behavioral Health & Health Policy Practice, Westat, Rockville, MD, USA.Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.Inorganic and Radiation Analytical Toxicology Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.Inorganic and Radiation Analytical Toxicology Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.University of Minnesota, Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.University of Minnesota, Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Epidemiology Research Branch, National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), Bethesda, MD, USA.Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33590857

Citation

Smith, Danielle M., et al. "Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014." Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research On Nicotine and Tobacco, vol. 23, no. 5, 2021, pp. 790-797.
Smith DM, Christensen C, van Bemmel D, et al. Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021;23(5):790-797.
Smith, D. M., Christensen, C., van Bemmel, D., Borek, N., Ambrose, B., Erives, G., Niaura, R., Edwards, K. C., Stanton, C. A., Blount, B. C., Wang, L., Feng, J., Jarrett, J. M., Ward, C. D., Hatsukami, D., Hecht, S. S., Kimmel, H. L., Travers, M., Hyland, A., & Goniewicz, M. L. (2021). Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014. Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research On Nicotine and Tobacco, 23(5), 790-797. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa252
Smith DM, et al. Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021 05 4;23(5):790-797. PubMed PMID: 33590857.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014. AU - Smith,Danielle M, AU - Christensen,Carol, AU - van Bemmel,Dana, AU - Borek,Nicolette, AU - Ambrose,Bridget, AU - Erives,Gladys, AU - Niaura,Raymond, AU - Edwards,Kathryn C, AU - Stanton,Cassandra A, AU - Blount,Benjamin C, AU - Wang,Lanqing, AU - Feng,Jun, AU - Jarrett,Jeffery M, AU - Ward,Cynthia D, AU - Hatsukami,Dorothy, AU - Hecht,Stephen S, AU - Kimmel,Heather L, AU - Travers,Mark, AU - Hyland,Andrew, AU - Goniewicz,Maciej L, PY - 2020/05/06/received PY - 2020/11/30/accepted PY - 2021/2/17/pubmed PY - 2021/7/27/medline PY - 2021/2/16/entrez SP - 790 EP - 797 JF - Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco JO - Nicotine Tob Res VL - 23 IS - 5 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Concurrent use of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes ("dual use") is common among tobacco users. Little is known about differences in demographics and toxicant exposure among subsets of dual users. AIMS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from adult dual users (current every/some day users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, n = 792) included in the PATH Study Wave 1 (2013-2014) and provided urine samples. Samples were analyzed for biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and selected toxicants (tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK [NNAL], lead, cadmium, naphthalene [2-naphthol], pyrene [1-hydroxypyrene], acrylonitrile [CYMA], acrolein [CEMA], and acrylamide [AAMA]). Subsets of dual users were compared on demographic, behavioral, and biomarker measures to exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 2411) and exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 247). RESULTS: Most dual users were predominant cigarette smokers (70%), followed by daily dual users (13%), non-daily concurrent dual users (10%), and predominant vapers (7%). Dual users who smoked daily showed significantly higher biomarker concentrations compared with those who did not smoke daily. Patterns of e-cigarette use had little effect on toxicant exposure. Dual users with high toxicant exposure were generally older, female, and smoked more cigarettes per day. Dual users who had low levels of biomarkers of exposure were generally younger, male, and smoked non-daily. CONCLUSIONS: In 2013-2014, most dual users smoked cigarettes daily and used e-cigarettes occasionally. Cigarette smoking appears to be the primary driver of toxicant exposure among dual users, with little-to-no effect of e-cigarette use on biomarker levels. Results reinforce the need for dual users to stop smoking tobacco cigarettes to reduce toxicant exposure. IMPLICATIONS: With considerable dual use of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes in the United States, it is important to understand differences in toxicant exposure among subsets of dual users, and how these differences align with user demographics. Findings suggest most dual users smoke daily and use e-cigarettes intermittently. Low exposure to toxicants was most common among younger users, males, and intermittent smokers; high exposure to toxicants was most common among older users, females, and heavier cigarette smokers. Results underscore the heterogeneity occurring within dual users, and the need to quit smoking cigarettes completely in order to reduce toxicant exposure. SN - 1469-994X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33590857/Exposure_to_Nicotine_and_Toxicants_Among_Dual_Users_of_Tobacco_Cigarettes_and_E_Cigarettes:_Population_Assessment_of_Tobacco_and_Health__PATH__Study_2013_2014_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ntr/ntaa252 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -