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Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future prospects.
Rev Med Virol. 2021 05; 31(3):e2183.RM

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is responsible for a global pandemic that started in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. To prevent the worldwide spread of this highly pathogenic virus, development of an effective and safe vaccine is urgently needed. The SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share a high degree of genetic and pathologic identity and share safety and immune-enhancement concerns regarding vaccine development. Prior animal studies with first generation (whole virus-based) preparations of SARS-CoV vaccines (inactivated and attenuated vaccine modalities) indicated the possibility of increased infectivity or eosinophilic infiltration by immunization. Therefore, development of second and third generation safer vaccines (by using modern vaccine platforms) is actively sought for this viral infection. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoVs is the main determinant of cell entry and tropism and is responsible for facilitating zoonosis into humans and sustained person-to-person transmission. Furthermore, 'S' protein contains multiple neutralizing epitopes that play an essential role in the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and protective immunity. Moreover, T-cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 'S' protein have also been characterized that correlate to the IgG and IgA antibody titres in Covid-19 patients. Thus, S protein is an obvious candidate antigen for inclusion into vaccine platforms against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. This manuscript reviews different characteristics of S protein, its potency and 'state of the art' of the vaccine development strategies and platforms using this antigen, for construction of a safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Department of Molecular Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Department of Molecular Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Ref Lab), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Ref Lab), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Ref Lab), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Ref Lab), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Research and Development, Production and Research Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Molecular Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.Department of Molecular Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33594794

Citation

Arashkia, Arash, et al. "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus-2 Spike (S) Protein Based Vaccine Candidates: State of the Art and Future Prospects." Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 31, no. 3, 2021, pp. e2183.
Arashkia A, Jalilvand S, Mohajel N, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future prospects. Rev Med Virol. 2021;31(3):e2183.
Arashkia, A., Jalilvand, S., Mohajel, N., Afchangi, A., Azadmanesh, K., Salehi-Vaziri, M., Fazlalipour, M., Pouriayevali, M. H., Jalali, T., Mousavi Nasab, S. D., Roohvand, F., & Shoja, Z. (2021). Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future prospects. Reviews in Medical Virology, 31(3), e2183. https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2183
Arashkia A, et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus-2 Spike (S) Protein Based Vaccine Candidates: State of the Art and Future Prospects. Rev Med Virol. 2021;31(3):e2183. PubMed PMID: 33594794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future prospects. AU - Arashkia,Arash, AU - Jalilvand,Somayeh, AU - Mohajel,Nasir, AU - Afchangi,Atefeh, AU - Azadmanesh,Kayhan, AU - Salehi-Vaziri,Mostafa, AU - Fazlalipour,Mehdi, AU - Pouriayevali,Mohammad Hassan, AU - Jalali,Tahmineh, AU - Mousavi Nasab,Seyed Dawood, AU - Roohvand,Farzin, AU - Shoja,Zabihollah, AU - ,, Y1 - 2020/10/15/ PY - 2020/09/30/revised PY - 2020/08/25/received PY - 2020/10/01/accepted PY - 2021/2/18/pubmed PY - 2021/6/1/medline PY - 2021/2/17/entrez KW - RBD KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - spike KW - vaccine SP - e2183 EP - e2183 JF - Reviews in medical virology JO - Rev Med Virol VL - 31 IS - 3 N2 - Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is responsible for a global pandemic that started in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. To prevent the worldwide spread of this highly pathogenic virus, development of an effective and safe vaccine is urgently needed. The SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share a high degree of genetic and pathologic identity and share safety and immune-enhancement concerns regarding vaccine development. Prior animal studies with first generation (whole virus-based) preparations of SARS-CoV vaccines (inactivated and attenuated vaccine modalities) indicated the possibility of increased infectivity or eosinophilic infiltration by immunization. Therefore, development of second and third generation safer vaccines (by using modern vaccine platforms) is actively sought for this viral infection. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoVs is the main determinant of cell entry and tropism and is responsible for facilitating zoonosis into humans and sustained person-to-person transmission. Furthermore, 'S' protein contains multiple neutralizing epitopes that play an essential role in the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and protective immunity. Moreover, T-cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 'S' protein have also been characterized that correlate to the IgG and IgA antibody titres in Covid-19 patients. Thus, S protein is an obvious candidate antigen for inclusion into vaccine platforms against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. This manuscript reviews different characteristics of S protein, its potency and 'state of the art' of the vaccine development strategies and platforms using this antigen, for construction of a safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. SN - 1099-1654 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33594794/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_2_spike__S__protein_based_vaccine_candidates:_State_of_the_art_and_future_prospects_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2183 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -