A Comparative Retrospective Study of Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome and Acute Coronary Syndrome.Isr Med Assoc J. 2021 Feb; 23(2):107-110.IM
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by an acute reversible left ventricular dysfunction with typical apical ballooning, usually with subsequent complete spontaneous recovery. TTS shares several features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including clinical presentation, ECG changes, and elevated troponin.
To identify different features that may help differentiate between TTS and ACS with presentation based on presenting symptoms and physical examination.
We compared 35 patients who TTS had been diagnosed with 60 age- and sex- matched patients with ACS (both ST and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction) who were hospitalized in Galilee Medical Center through 2011-2015.Basic characteristics and clinical features of the two groups were compared using appropriate statistical tests.
Of the patients with TTS, 21 (60%) reported an emotional trigger (60%) before admission, although they did not have increased prevalence of psychiatric disease compared to ACS patients (5.7% vs. 5%, P = 0.611). There was no difference in the type of chest pain or accompanied symptoms between the groups. Of notice, ECG changes in the TTS group were prominent in the anterior leads, and the patients presented with higher heart rate (86 ± 17 vs. 79 ± 15, P = 0.029) and lower systolic blood pressure (129 ± 26 vs. 142 ± 30, P = 0.034) on admission compared to the ACS group.
There was no reliable feature that could distinguish TTS from ACS based on clinical presentation. TTS should always be in the differential diagnosis in patients with acute chest pain, especially in elderly women.