Concentrations of urinary biomarkers and predictors of exposure to pyrethroid insecticides in young, Polish, urban-dwelling men.Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jun 15; 773:145666.ST
Pyrethroid insecticides are a class of pesticides with multiple agricultural and residential applications. However, widespread use of these chemicals may pose a threat to human health. Biomarkers of pyrethroid exposure are frequently detected in populations around the world, but some groups may be underrepresented. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate on factors contributing to pyrethroid burden in humans. To address these problems, we measured urinary biomarkers of pyrethroid exposure in urine samples from 306 young men living in urban area of Łódź, Poland, and gathered questionnaire data to identify predictors of exposure. Limit of detection (LOD) of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was 0.1 ng/mL for all quantified pyrethroid metabolites, namely cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DBCA), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). Detection rate ranged from 32% (cis-DBCA) to 76% (trans-DCCA). Concentrations of urinary biomarkers in studied sample were in lower range of these observed in similar studies, with unadjusted geometric means (GMs) of most prevalent biomarkers, trans-DCCA and 3-PBA, equal to 0.268 and 0.228 ng/mL, respectively. As for questionnaire data, the statistical analysis revealed that non-dietary factors, especially dog ownership and pesticide use on household pets, contribute significantly to urinary trans-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations (p ≤ 0.009). Moreover, a few dietary sources of exposure were identified, such as seeds and nuts consumption for 3-PBA (p < 0.001) and vegetable juice intake for trans-DCCA (p = 0.015). Multivariate analyses further highlighted the importance of non-dietary factors in pyrethroid exposure. Compared to other works, our results confirm widespread exposure to pyrethroids observed in other studies and stress the role of residential pyrethroid use in pyrethroid burden in humans.