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Interactions between seasonal human coronaviruses and implications for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A retrospective study in Stockholm, Sweden, 2009-2020.
J Clin Virol. 2021 03; 136:104754.JC

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The four seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 are frequent causes of respiratory infections and show annual and seasonal variation. Increased understanding about these patterns could be informative about the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.

METHODS

Results from PCR diagnostics for the seasonal coronaviruses, and other respiratory viruses, were obtained for 55,190 clinical samples analyzed at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, between 14 September 2009 and 2 April 2020.

RESULTS

Seasonal coronaviruses were detected in 2130 samples (3.9 %) and constituted 8.1 % of all virus detections. OC43 was most commonly detected (28.4 % of detections), followed by NL63 (24.0 %), HKU1 (17.6 %), and 229E (15.3 %). The overall fraction of positive samples was similar between seasons, but at species level there were distinct biennial alternating peak seasons for the Alphacoronaviruses, 229E and NL63, and the Betacoronaviruses, OC43 and HKU1, respectively. The Betacoronaviruses peaked earlier in the winter season (Dec-Jan) than the Alphacoronaviruses (Feb-Mar). Coronaviruses were detected across all ages, but diagnostics were more frequently requested for paediatric patients than adults and the elderly. OC43 and 229E incidence was relatively constant across age strata, while that of NL63 and HKU1 decreased with age.

CONCLUSIONS

Both the Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses showed alternating biennial winter incidence peaks, which suggests some type of immune mediated interaction. Symptomatic reinfections in adults and the elderly appear relatively common. Both findings may be of relevance for the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: robert.dyrdak@sll.se.Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Basel, Switzerland.Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Basel, Switzerland.Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33601153

Citation

Dyrdak, Robert, et al. "Interactions Between Seasonal Human Coronaviruses and Implications for the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: a Retrospective Study in Stockholm, Sweden, 2009-2020." Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, vol. 136, 2021, p. 104754.
Dyrdak R, Hodcroft EB, Wahlund M, et al. Interactions between seasonal human coronaviruses and implications for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A retrospective study in Stockholm, Sweden, 2009-2020. J Clin Virol. 2021;136:104754.
Dyrdak, R., Hodcroft, E. B., Wahlund, M., Neher, R. A., & Albert, J. (2021). Interactions between seasonal human coronaviruses and implications for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A retrospective study in Stockholm, Sweden, 2009-2020. Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 136, 104754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104754
Dyrdak R, et al. Interactions Between Seasonal Human Coronaviruses and Implications for the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: a Retrospective Study in Stockholm, Sweden, 2009-2020. J Clin Virol. 2021;136:104754. PubMed PMID: 33601153.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Interactions between seasonal human coronaviruses and implications for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A retrospective study in Stockholm, Sweden, 2009-2020. AU - Dyrdak,Robert, AU - Hodcroft,Emma B, AU - Wahlund,Martina, AU - Neher,Richard A, AU - Albert,Jan, Y1 - 2021/02/08/ PY - 2020/11/13/received PY - 2021/01/21/revised PY - 2021/02/01/accepted PY - 2021/2/19/pubmed PY - 2021/3/23/medline PY - 2021/2/18/entrez KW - Epidemiology KW - Respiratory virus infections KW - Seasonal coronavirus SP - 104754 EP - 104754 JF - Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology JO - J Clin Virol VL - 136 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The four seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 are frequent causes of respiratory infections and show annual and seasonal variation. Increased understanding about these patterns could be informative about the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Results from PCR diagnostics for the seasonal coronaviruses, and other respiratory viruses, were obtained for 55,190 clinical samples analyzed at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, between 14 September 2009 and 2 April 2020. RESULTS: Seasonal coronaviruses were detected in 2130 samples (3.9 %) and constituted 8.1 % of all virus detections. OC43 was most commonly detected (28.4 % of detections), followed by NL63 (24.0 %), HKU1 (17.6 %), and 229E (15.3 %). The overall fraction of positive samples was similar between seasons, but at species level there were distinct biennial alternating peak seasons for the Alphacoronaviruses, 229E and NL63, and the Betacoronaviruses, OC43 and HKU1, respectively. The Betacoronaviruses peaked earlier in the winter season (Dec-Jan) than the Alphacoronaviruses (Feb-Mar). Coronaviruses were detected across all ages, but diagnostics were more frequently requested for paediatric patients than adults and the elderly. OC43 and 229E incidence was relatively constant across age strata, while that of NL63 and HKU1 decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Both the Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses showed alternating biennial winter incidence peaks, which suggests some type of immune mediated interaction. Symptomatic reinfections in adults and the elderly appear relatively common. Both findings may be of relevance for the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. SN - 1873-5967 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33601153/Interactions_between_seasonal_human_coronaviruses_and_implications_for_the_SARS_CoV_2_pandemic:_A_retrospective_study_in_Stockholm_Sweden_2009_2020_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1386-6532(21)00021-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -