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Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of free, esterified and bound phenolic compounds in walnut kernel.
Food Chem. 2021 Jul 15; 350:129217.FC

Abstract

The free, esterified and bound forms of 37 phenolic compounds (including hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, flavonols and flavones) from walnut kernel (Juglans regia L.) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the majority of walnut phenolics were presented in the free form (51.1%-68.1%), followed by bound (21.0%-38.0%) and esterified forms (9.7%-18.7%). Ellagic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and caffeic acid were widely distributed in three forms. Differently, jeuglone, kaempferol, quercetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside and dihydroquercetin were only found in free phenolics. Among the three forms, free phenolics had the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50: DPPH, 15.5 µg/ml; ABTS, 13.6 µg/ml). The correlation coefficients between the antioxidant activities of phenolics and their corresponding contents were 0.82-0.92. More soluble phenolics (free and esterified forms) could be extracted by acetone, while methanol was better at extracting insoluble bound phenolics.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China; Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, PR China.Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China; Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, PR China.Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China.Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China.Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China.Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China.State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Haidian District, Beijing 10091, PR China.Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Fuyang 311400, PR China. Electronic address: liuyh@caf.ac.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33607410

Citation

Wu, Shutian, et al. "Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Free, Esterified and Bound Phenolic Compounds in Walnut Kernel." Food Chemistry, vol. 350, 2021, p. 129217.
Wu S, Shen D, Wang R, et al. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of free, esterified and bound phenolic compounds in walnut kernel. Food Chem. 2021;350:129217.
Wu, S., Shen, D., Wang, R., Li, Q., Mo, R., Zheng, Y., Zhou, Y., & Liu, Y. (2021). Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of free, esterified and bound phenolic compounds in walnut kernel. Food Chemistry, 350, 129217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129217
Wu S, et al. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Free, Esterified and Bound Phenolic Compounds in Walnut Kernel. Food Chem. 2021 Jul 15;350:129217. PubMed PMID: 33607410.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of free, esterified and bound phenolic compounds in walnut kernel. AU - Wu,Shutian, AU - Shen,Danyu, AU - Wang,Ruohui, AU - Li,Qingyang, AU - Mo,Runhong, AU - Zheng,Yuewen, AU - Zhou,Ye, AU - Liu,Yihua, Y1 - 2021/02/09/ PY - 2020/11/18/received PY - 2021/01/12/revised PY - 2021/01/22/accepted PY - 2021/2/20/pubmed PY - 2021/3/26/medline PY - 2021/2/19/entrez KW - Antioxidant activity KW - Bound phenolics KW - Esterified phenolics KW - Solvent extraction KW - Walnut kernel SP - 129217 EP - 129217 JF - Food chemistry JO - Food Chem VL - 350 N2 - The free, esterified and bound forms of 37 phenolic compounds (including hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, flavonols and flavones) from walnut kernel (Juglans regia L.) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the majority of walnut phenolics were presented in the free form (51.1%-68.1%), followed by bound (21.0%-38.0%) and esterified forms (9.7%-18.7%). Ellagic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and caffeic acid were widely distributed in three forms. Differently, jeuglone, kaempferol, quercetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside and dihydroquercetin were only found in free phenolics. Among the three forms, free phenolics had the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50: DPPH, 15.5 µg/ml; ABTS, 13.6 µg/ml). The correlation coefficients between the antioxidant activities of phenolics and their corresponding contents were 0.82-0.92. More soluble phenolics (free and esterified forms) could be extracted by acetone, while methanol was better at extracting insoluble bound phenolics. SN - 1873-7072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33607410/Phenolic_profiles_and_antioxidant_activities_of_free_esterified_and_bound_phenolic_compounds_in_walnut_kernel_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308-8146(21)00221-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -