All-cause mortality among patients treated with repurposed antivirals and antibiotics for COVID-19 in Mexico City: A real-world observational study.EXCLI J. 2021; 20:199-222.EJ
The aim of our study was to evaluate all-cause mortality risk in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Mexico City treated with repurposed antivirals and antibiotics. This real-world retrospective cohort study contemplated 395,343 patients evaluated for suspected COVID-19 between February 24 and September 14, 2020 in 688 primary-to-tertiary medical units in Mexico City. Patients were included with a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2; those receiving unspecified antivirals, excluded; and groups of antivirals prescribed in < 30 patients, eliminated. Survival and mortality risks were determined for patients receiving antivirals, antibiotics, both, or none. We assessed the effect of early (<2 days) versus late (>2 days) use of antivirals on mortality in a sub-cohort of patients. Multivariable adjustment, propensity score matching, generalized estimating equations, and calculation of E-values were performed to limit confounding. 136,855 patients were analyzed; mean age 44.2 (SD:16.8) years; 51.3 % were men. 16.6 % received antivirals (3 %), antibiotics (10 %), or both (3.6 %). Antivirals studied were Oseltamivir (n=8414), Amantadine (n=319), Lopinavir-Ritonavir (n=100), Rimantadine (n=61), Zanamivir (n=39), and Acyclovir (n=36). Survival with antivirals (73.7 %, p<0.0001) and antibiotics (85.8 %, p<0.0001) was lower than no antiviral/antibiotic (93.6 %). After multivariable adjustment, increased risk of death occurred with antivirals (HR=1.72, 95 % CI: 1.61-1.84) in ambulatory (HR=4.7, 95 % CI: 3.94-5.62) and non-critical (HR=2.03, 95 % CI: 1.86-2.21) patients. Oseltamivir increased mortality risk in the general population (HR=1.72, 95 % CI: 1.61-1.84), ambulatory (HR=4.79, 95 % CI: 4.01-5.75), non-critical (HR=2.05, 95 % CI: 1.88-2.23), and pregnancy (HR=8.35, 95 % CI: 1.77-39.30); as well as hospitalized (HR=1.13, 95 % CI: 1.01-1.26) and critical patients (HR=1.22, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.43) after propensity score-matching. Early versus late oseltamivir did not modify the risk. Antibiotics were a risk factor in general population (HR=1.13, 95 % CI: 1.08-1.19) and pediatrics (HR=4.22, 95 % CI: 2.01-8.86), but a protective factor in hospitalized (HR=0.81, 95 % CI: 0.77-0.86) and critical patients (HR=0.67, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.72). No significant benefit for repurposed antivirals was observed; oseltamivir was associated with increased mortality. Antibiotics increased mortality risk in the general population but may increase survival in hospitalized and critical patients.