Identification of inhibitors of pinellic acid generation in whole wheat bread.Food Chem. 2021 Jul 30; 351:129291.FC
Bitterness is a common aversive flavor attribute of foods associated with low consumer acceptance. Untargeted LC-MS flavoromic profiling was utilized to identify endogenous compounds that influence the generation of the bitter compound 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid) during bread making. A diverse sample set of wheat germplasm was chemically profiled. The corresponding pinellic acid concentrations after dough formation were modeled by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) with good fit (R2Y = 0.8) and predictive ability (Q2 = 0.6). The most predictive feature (negatively correlated), postulated to interfere with the biosynthetic pathway, was identified as schaftoside, an apigenin di-C-glycoside. Recombination experiments involving the addition of schaftoside to flour prior to breadmaking resulted in a 26% decrease in pinellic acid formation and significantly lower perceived bitterness intensity in whole wheat bread. This work provides novel understanding of bitter generation pathways in wheat products and new strategies to improve flavor profiles and consumer acceptability.