Anethum sowa Roxb. ex fleming: A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological activities.J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Nov 15; 280:113967.JE
Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Syn. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming, Family: Apiaceae) is a pharmacologically important as aromatic and medicinal plant. Various parts of this plant are used in traditional medicine systems for carminative, uterine and colic pain, digestion disorder, flatulence in babies, appetite-stimulating agent and used to treat mild flue and cough. The essential oil is used for aromatherapy. It is also used as a spice for food flavouring and culinary preparations in many Asian and European countries.
AIM OF THE REVIEW
This review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical assessment from the reported traditional and pharmaceutical uses and pharmacological activities of the extracts, essential oil and phytoconstituents with emphasis on its therapeutic potential as well as toxicological evaluation of A. sowa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Online search engines such as SciFinder®, GoogleScholar®, ResearchGate®, Web of Science®, Scopus®, PubMed and additional data from books, proceedings and local prints were searched using relevant keywords and terminologies related to A. sowa for critical analyses.
The literature studies demonstrated that A. sowa possesses several ethnopharmacological activities, including pharmaceutical prescriptions, traditional applications, and spice in food preparations. The phytochemical investigation conducted on crude extracts has been characterized and identified various classes of compounds, including coumarins, anthraquinone, terpenoids, alkaloid, benzodioxoles, phenolics, polyphenols, phenolic and polyphenols, fatty acids, phthalides and carotenoids. The extracts and compounds from the different parts of A. sowa showed diverse in vitro and in vivo biological activities including antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, Alzheimer associating neuromodulatory, cytotoxic, anticancer, antidiabetes, insecticidal and larvicidal.
A. sowa is a valuable medicinal plant which is especially used in food flavouring and culinary preparations. This review summarized the pertinent information on A. sowa and its traditional and culinary uses, as well as potential pharmacological properties of essential oils, extracts and isolated compounds. The traditional uses of A. sowa are supported by in vitro/vivo pharmacological studies; however, further investigation on A. sowa should be focused on isolation and identification of more active compounds and establish the links between the traditional uses and reported pharmacological activities with active compounds, as well as structure-activity relationship and in vivo mechanistic studies before integrated into the medicine. The toxicological report confirmed its safety. Nonetheless, pharmacokinetic evaluation tests to validate its bioavailability should be encouraged.