Behavioral Intention to Receive a COVID-19 Vaccination Among Chinese Factory Workers: Cross-sectional Online Survey.J Med Internet Res. 2021 03 09; 23(3):e24673.JM
COVID-19 vaccines will become available in China soon. Understanding communities' responses to the forthcoming COVID-19 vaccines is important. We applied the theory of planned behavior as the theoretical framework.
This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with behavioral intention to receive self-financed or free COVID-19 vaccinations among Chinese factory workers who resumed work during the pandemic. We examined the effects of factors including sociodemographics, perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination, exposure to information about COVID-19 vaccination through social media, and COVID-19 preventive measures implemented by individuals and factories.
Participants were full-time employees 18 years or older who worked in factories in Shenzhen. Factory workers in Shenzhen are required to receive a physical examination annually. Eligible workers attending six physical examination sites were invited to complete a survey on September 1-7, 2020. Out of 2653 eligible factory workers, 2053 (77.4%) completed the online survey. Multivariate two-level logistic regression models and ordinal logistic regression models were fitted.
The prevalence of behavioral intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was 66.6% (n=1368, conditional on 80% vaccine efficacy and market rate) and 80.6% (n=1655, conditional on 80% vaccine efficacy and free vaccines). After adjusting for significant background characteristics, positive attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.20, 95% CI 1.15-1.25 and AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.19-1.30), perceived support from significant others for getting a COVID-19 vaccination (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32-1.55 and AOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.25-1.50), and perceived behavioral control to get a COVID-19 vaccination (AOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.32-1.73 and AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.51) were positively associated with both dependent variables (conditional on 80% vaccine efficacy and market rate or free vaccines, respectively). Regarding social media influence, higher frequency of exposure to positive information related to COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a higher intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination at market rate (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.39-1.70) or a free vaccination (AOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.35-1.71). Higher self-reported compliance with wearing a face mask in the workplace (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.58 and AOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.24-2.27) and other public spaces (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.42-2.29 and AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.77), hand hygiene (AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.47 and AOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.19-1.93), and avoiding social gatherings (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47 and AOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.23-1.95) and crowded places (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02-1.51 and AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37-2.18) were also positively associated with both dependent variables. The number of COVID-19 preventive measures implemented by the factory was positively associated with the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination under both scenarios (AOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12 and AOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11).
Factory workers in China reported a high behavioral intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. The theory of planned behavior is a useful framework to guide the development of future campaigns promoting COVID-19 vaccination.