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Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters.
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jul 01; 776:145740.ST

Abstract

Antiviral drugs have been used to treat the ever-growing number of coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Consequently, unprecedented amounts of such drug residues discharging into ambient waters raise concerns on the potential ecotoxicological effects to aquatic lives, as well as development of antiviral drug-resistance in wildlife. Here, we estimated the occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological risk of 11 therapeutic agents suggested as drugs for COVID-19 treatment and their 13 metabolites in wastewater and environmental waters, based on drug consumption, physical-chemical property, and ecotoxicological and pharmacological data for the drugs, with the aid of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling. Our results suggest that the removal efficiencies at conventional wastewater treatment plants will remain low (<20%) for half of the substances, and consequently, high drug residues (e.g. 7402 ng/L ribavirin, 4231 ng/L favipiravir, 730 ng/L lopinavir, 319 ng/L remdesivir; each combined for both unchanged forms and metabolites; and when each drug is administered to 100 patients out of 100,000 populations on a day) can be present in secondary effluents and persist in the environmental waters. Ecotoxicological risk in receiving river waters can be high (risk quotient >1) by a use of favipiravir, lopinavir, umifenovir and ritonavir, and medium (risk quotient >0.1) by a use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and ribavirin, while the risk will remain low (risk quotient <0.1) for dexamethasone and oseltamivir. The potential of wild animals acquiring antiviral drug resistance was estimated to be low. Our prediction suggests a pressing need for proper usage and waste management of antiviral drugs as well as for improving removal efficiencies of drug residues in wastewater.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama 939 0398, Japan. Electronic address: kuroda@pu-toyama.ac.jp.Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama 939 0398, Japan.Discipline of Earth Science, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 355, India.Discipline of Earth Science, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 355, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33647647

Citation

Kuroda, Keisuke, et al. "Predicted Occurrence, Ecotoxicological Risk and Environmentally Acquired Resistance of Antiviral Drugs Associated With COVID-19 in Environmental Waters." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 776, 2021, p. 145740.
Kuroda K, Li C, Dhangar K, et al. Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters. Sci Total Environ. 2021;776:145740.
Kuroda, K., Li, C., Dhangar, K., & Kumar, M. (2021). Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters. The Science of the Total Environment, 776, 145740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145740
Kuroda K, et al. Predicted Occurrence, Ecotoxicological Risk and Environmentally Acquired Resistance of Antiviral Drugs Associated With COVID-19 in Environmental Waters. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jul 1;776:145740. PubMed PMID: 33647647.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters. AU - Kuroda,Keisuke, AU - Li,Cong, AU - Dhangar,Kiran, AU - Kumar,Manish, Y1 - 2021/02/15/ PY - 2020/12/09/received PY - 2021/02/03/revised PY - 2021/02/04/accepted PY - 2021/3/2/pubmed PY - 2021/4/30/medline PY - 2021/3/1/entrez KW - Antiviral drug resistance KW - COVID-19 vaccine KW - Pharmaceuticals KW - QSAR KW - SARS-CoV-2 SP - 145740 EP - 145740 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 776 N2 - Antiviral drugs have been used to treat the ever-growing number of coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Consequently, unprecedented amounts of such drug residues discharging into ambient waters raise concerns on the potential ecotoxicological effects to aquatic lives, as well as development of antiviral drug-resistance in wildlife. Here, we estimated the occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological risk of 11 therapeutic agents suggested as drugs for COVID-19 treatment and their 13 metabolites in wastewater and environmental waters, based on drug consumption, physical-chemical property, and ecotoxicological and pharmacological data for the drugs, with the aid of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling. Our results suggest that the removal efficiencies at conventional wastewater treatment plants will remain low (<20%) for half of the substances, and consequently, high drug residues (e.g. 7402 ng/L ribavirin, 4231 ng/L favipiravir, 730 ng/L lopinavir, 319 ng/L remdesivir; each combined for both unchanged forms and metabolites; and when each drug is administered to 100 patients out of 100,000 populations on a day) can be present in secondary effluents and persist in the environmental waters. Ecotoxicological risk in receiving river waters can be high (risk quotient >1) by a use of favipiravir, lopinavir, umifenovir and ritonavir, and medium (risk quotient >0.1) by a use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and ribavirin, while the risk will remain low (risk quotient <0.1) for dexamethasone and oseltamivir. The potential of wild animals acquiring antiviral drug resistance was estimated to be low. Our prediction suggests a pressing need for proper usage and waste management of antiviral drugs as well as for improving removal efficiencies of drug residues in wastewater. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33647647/Predicted_occurrence,_ecotoxicological_risk_and_environmentally_acquired_resistance_of_antiviral_drugs_associated_with_COVID-19_in_environmental_waters. L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(21)00807-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -