Factors associated with emotional exhaustion in healthcare professionals involved in the COVID-19 pandemic: an application of the job demands-resources model.Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2021 11; 94(8):1751-1761.IA
The purpose of the present cross-sectional study is to investigate the role of perceived COVID-19-related organizational demands and threats in predicting emotional exhaustion, and the role of organizational support in reducing the negative influence of perceived COVID-19 work-related stressors on burnout. Moreover, the present study aims to add to the understanding of the role of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) by examining whether personal resources-such as the professionals' orientation towards patient engagement-may also strengthen the impact of job resources and mitigate the impact of job demands.
This cross-sectional study involved 532 healthcare professionals working during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. It adopted the Job-Demands-Resource Model to study the determinants of professional's burnout. An integrative model describing how increasing job demands experienced by this specific population are related to burnout and in particular to emotional exhaustion symptoms was developed.
The results of the logistic regression models provided strong support for the proposed model, as both Job Demands and Resources are significant predictors (OR = 2.359 and 0.563 respectively, with p < 0.001). Moreover, healthcare professionals' orientation towards patient engagement appears as a significant moderator of this relationship, as it reduces Demands' effect (OR = 1.188) and increases Resources' effect (OR = 0.501).
These findings integrate previous findings on the JD-R Model and suggest the relevance of personal resources and of relational factors in affecting professionals' experience of burnout.