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Proneness for and aversion to self-conscious emotion in posttraumatic stress.
Psychol Trauma. 2022 May; 14(4):680-687.PT

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Theory suggests that self-conscious emotions (guilt and shame) may play a role in the development/maintenance of posttraumatic stress. Propensities to experience these emotions (i.e., proneness) may confer risk for posttraumatic stress, while difficulties tolerating or coping with them (i.e., aversion) may maintain or exacerbate symptoms. However, no research to date has examined the importance of guilt aversion or shame aversion in posttraumatic stress.

METHOD

A total of 336 participants provided open-ended information on their experience of potentially traumatic events; a team of trained raters determined that a final sample of 186 participants had a clinically significant history of trauma. These participants completed measures of posttraumatic stress, along with measures of proneness for and aversion to both guilt and shame. Negative affect and experiential avoidance were assessed as covariates.

RESULTS

Zero-order correlations indicated that guilt-proneness and guilt aversion were not associated with posttraumatic stress. By contrast, shame-proneness was associated with posttraumatic stress over and above trait negative affect and experiential avoidance. Moreover, a significant interaction revealed that shame-proneness was only associated with posttraumatic stress when shame aversion was high.

CONCLUSIONS

Results suggest that people high in shame-proneness, and therefore likely to experience shame in response to traumatic events, may experience greater posttraumatic stress if they are shame averse. If this is the case, addressing shame directly and teaching better skills for regulating it may be an important treatment goal for some individuals with posttraumatic stress. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology.Department of Psychology.Department of Psychology.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33661691

Citation

Schoenleber, Michelle, et al. "Proneness for and Aversion to Self-conscious Emotion in Posttraumatic Stress." Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, vol. 14, no. 4, 2022, pp. 680-687.
Schoenleber M, Collins A, Berenbaum H. Proneness for and aversion to self-conscious emotion in posttraumatic stress. Psychol Trauma. 2022;14(4):680-687.
Schoenleber, M., Collins, A., & Berenbaum, H. (2022). Proneness for and aversion to self-conscious emotion in posttraumatic stress. Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 14(4), 680-687. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0001020
Schoenleber M, Collins A, Berenbaum H. Proneness for and Aversion to Self-conscious Emotion in Posttraumatic Stress. Psychol Trauma. 2022;14(4):680-687. PubMed PMID: 33661691.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Proneness for and aversion to self-conscious emotion in posttraumatic stress. AU - Schoenleber,Michelle, AU - Collins,Aidan, AU - Berenbaum,Howard, Y1 - 2021/03/04/ PY - 2021/3/5/pubmed PY - 2022/4/28/medline PY - 2021/3/4/entrez SP - 680 EP - 687 JF - Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy JO - Psychol Trauma VL - 14 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Theory suggests that self-conscious emotions (guilt and shame) may play a role in the development/maintenance of posttraumatic stress. Propensities to experience these emotions (i.e., proneness) may confer risk for posttraumatic stress, while difficulties tolerating or coping with them (i.e., aversion) may maintain or exacerbate symptoms. However, no research to date has examined the importance of guilt aversion or shame aversion in posttraumatic stress. METHOD: A total of 336 participants provided open-ended information on their experience of potentially traumatic events; a team of trained raters determined that a final sample of 186 participants had a clinically significant history of trauma. These participants completed measures of posttraumatic stress, along with measures of proneness for and aversion to both guilt and shame. Negative affect and experiential avoidance were assessed as covariates. RESULTS: Zero-order correlations indicated that guilt-proneness and guilt aversion were not associated with posttraumatic stress. By contrast, shame-proneness was associated with posttraumatic stress over and above trait negative affect and experiential avoidance. Moreover, a significant interaction revealed that shame-proneness was only associated with posttraumatic stress when shame aversion was high. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that people high in shame-proneness, and therefore likely to experience shame in response to traumatic events, may experience greater posttraumatic stress if they are shame averse. If this is the case, addressing shame directly and teaching better skills for regulating it may be an important treatment goal for some individuals with posttraumatic stress. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved). SN - 1942-969X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33661691/Proneness_for_and_aversion_to_self_conscious_emotion_in_posttraumatic_stress_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -