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Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed.
Plants (Basel). 2021 Feb 20; 10(2)P

Abstract

Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of invasive alien plants Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtkova) J.P. Bailey) were investigated using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to densitometry, image analysis and mass spectrometry (HPTLC-MS/MS). (+)-Catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate and procyanidin B2 were found in rhizomes of these three species, and for the first time in Bohemian knotweed. (-)-Epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin C1 were found in giant knotweed rhizomes for the first time. Rhizomes of Bohemian and giant knotweed have the same chemical profiles of proanthocyanidins with respect to the degree of polymerization and with respect to gallates. Japanese and Bohemian knotweed have equal chromatographic fingerprint profiles with the additional peak not present in giant knotweed. Within the individual species giant knotweed rhizomes and leaves have the most similar fingerprints, while the fingerprints of Japanese and Bohemian knotweed rhizomes have additional peaks not found in leaves. Rhizomes of all three species proved to be a rich source of proanthocyanidins, with the highest content in Japanese and the lowest in Bohemian knotweed (based on the total peak areas). The contents of monomers in Japanese, Bohemian and giant knotweed rhizomes were 2.99 kg/t of dry mass (DM), 1.52 kg/t DM, 2.36 kg/t DM, respectively, while the contents of dimers were 2.81 kg/t DM, 1.09 kg/t DM, 2.17 kg/t DM, respectively. All B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers-flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers and decamers) and some of their gallates (monomer gallates, dimer gallates, dimer digallates, trimer gallates, tetramer gallates, pentamer gallates and hexamer gallates) were identified in rhizomes of Bohemian knotweed and giant knotweed. Pentamer gallates, hexamers, hexamer gallates, nonamers and decamers were identified for the first time in this study in Bohemian and giant knotweed rhizomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory for Food Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 113, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.Laboratory for Food Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.Laboratory for Food Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33672472

Citation

Bensa, Maja, et al. "Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed." Plants (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 10, no. 2, 2021.
Bensa M, Glavnik V, Vovk I. Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed. Plants (Basel). 2021;10(2).
Bensa, M., Glavnik, V., & Vovk, I. (2021). Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed. Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020402
Bensa M, Glavnik V, Vovk I. Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed. Plants (Basel). 2021 Feb 20;10(2) PubMed PMID: 33672472.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed. AU - Bensa,Maja, AU - Glavnik,Vesna, AU - Vovk,Irena, Y1 - 2021/02/20/ PY - 2021/02/03/received PY - 2021/02/15/revised PY - 2021/02/17/accepted PY - 2021/3/6/entrez PY - 2021/3/7/pubmed PY - 2021/3/7/medline KW - HPTLC–MS KW - Polygonaceae KW - Polygonum KW - Reynoutria KW - catechins KW - chemical profiling KW - condensed tannins KW - fingerprints KW - flavanols KW - procyanidins JF - Plants (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Plants (Basel) VL - 10 IS - 2 N2 - Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of invasive alien plants Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtkova) J.P. Bailey) were investigated using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to densitometry, image analysis and mass spectrometry (HPTLC-MS/MS). (+)-Catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate and procyanidin B2 were found in rhizomes of these three species, and for the first time in Bohemian knotweed. (-)-Epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin C1 were found in giant knotweed rhizomes for the first time. Rhizomes of Bohemian and giant knotweed have the same chemical profiles of proanthocyanidins with respect to the degree of polymerization and with respect to gallates. Japanese and Bohemian knotweed have equal chromatographic fingerprint profiles with the additional peak not present in giant knotweed. Within the individual species giant knotweed rhizomes and leaves have the most similar fingerprints, while the fingerprints of Japanese and Bohemian knotweed rhizomes have additional peaks not found in leaves. Rhizomes of all three species proved to be a rich source of proanthocyanidins, with the highest content in Japanese and the lowest in Bohemian knotweed (based on the total peak areas). The contents of monomers in Japanese, Bohemian and giant knotweed rhizomes were 2.99 kg/t of dry mass (DM), 1.52 kg/t DM, 2.36 kg/t DM, respectively, while the contents of dimers were 2.81 kg/t DM, 1.09 kg/t DM, 2.17 kg/t DM, respectively. All B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers-flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers and decamers) and some of their gallates (monomer gallates, dimer gallates, dimer digallates, trimer gallates, tetramer gallates, pentamer gallates and hexamer gallates) were identified in rhizomes of Bohemian knotweed and giant knotweed. Pentamer gallates, hexamers, hexamer gallates, nonamers and decamers were identified for the first time in this study in Bohemian and giant knotweed rhizomes. SN - 2223-7747 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33672472/Flavan_3_ols_and_Proanthocyanidins_in_Japanese_Bohemian_and_Giant_Knotweed_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=plants10020402 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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