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Subjective responses predict d-amphetamine choice in healthy volunteers.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2021 05; 204:173158.PB

Abstract

BACKGROUND

It is commonly believed that drugs, including stimulants, are used recreationally because of their ability to induce pleasurable subjective effects. However, recreational drug use sometimes occurs in the absence of positive subjective effects, suggesting that other factors contribute. Here, we examine the extent to which the direct subjective effects of amphetamine, a commonly misused stimulant, predict subsequent choice of the drug vs placebo.

METHODS

Healthy adults (N = 112) participated in a five-session amphetamine choice study. On the first four sessions, participants sampled either 20 mg d-amphetamine or placebo in color-coded capsules two times each. On the fifth session, they chose which color (d-amphetamine or placebo) they preferred. We examined the choice of drug vs placebo in relation to demographic characteristics, baseline mood states, personality and subjective and cardiovascular responses to acute administration of the drug.

RESULTS

Eighty-one participants chose amphetamine (Choosers) while 31 chose placebo (Non-choosers). Overall, amphetamine produced typical stimulant-like effects on subjective questionnaires, and it elevated heart rate and blood pressure vs placebo. Choosers reported greater positive mood, elation and stimulant-like effects following amphetamine compared to Non-choosers. The Choosers also exhibited a greater increase in systolic blood pressure, but not heart rate. The groups did not differ on demographic characteristics, mood states before drug administration or personality.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings support the idea that pleasurable subjective responses to amphetamine, including positive mood, elation, and stimulant-like effects influence behavioral choice of the drug.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave MC3077, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave MC3077, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave MC3077, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave MC3077, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: hdew@uchicago.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33675838

Citation

Murray, Conor H., et al. "Subjective Responses Predict D-amphetamine Choice in Healthy Volunteers." Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol. 204, 2021, p. 173158.
Murray CH, Li J, Weafer J, et al. Subjective responses predict d-amphetamine choice in healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2021;204:173158.
Murray, C. H., Li, J., Weafer, J., & de Wit, H. (2021). Subjective responses predict d-amphetamine choice in healthy volunteers. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 204, 173158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2021.173158
Murray CH, et al. Subjective Responses Predict D-amphetamine Choice in Healthy Volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2021;204:173158. PubMed PMID: 33675838.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Subjective responses predict d-amphetamine choice in healthy volunteers. AU - Murray,Conor H, AU - Li,Jingfei, AU - Weafer,Jessica, AU - de Wit,Harriet, Y1 - 2021/03/04/ PY - 2020/09/06/received PY - 2021/02/22/revised PY - 2021/02/23/accepted PY - 2022/05/01/pmc-release PY - 2021/3/7/pubmed PY - 2021/10/9/medline PY - 2021/3/6/entrez KW - Amphetamine KW - Choice KW - Drug KW - Healthy volunteer KW - Mood KW - Subjective effects SP - 173158 EP - 173158 JF - Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior JO - Pharmacol Biochem Behav VL - 204 N2 - BACKGROUND: It is commonly believed that drugs, including stimulants, are used recreationally because of their ability to induce pleasurable subjective effects. However, recreational drug use sometimes occurs in the absence of positive subjective effects, suggesting that other factors contribute. Here, we examine the extent to which the direct subjective effects of amphetamine, a commonly misused stimulant, predict subsequent choice of the drug vs placebo. METHODS: Healthy adults (N = 112) participated in a five-session amphetamine choice study. On the first four sessions, participants sampled either 20 mg d-amphetamine or placebo in color-coded capsules two times each. On the fifth session, they chose which color (d-amphetamine or placebo) they preferred. We examined the choice of drug vs placebo in relation to demographic characteristics, baseline mood states, personality and subjective and cardiovascular responses to acute administration of the drug. RESULTS: Eighty-one participants chose amphetamine (Choosers) while 31 chose placebo (Non-choosers). Overall, amphetamine produced typical stimulant-like effects on subjective questionnaires, and it elevated heart rate and blood pressure vs placebo. Choosers reported greater positive mood, elation and stimulant-like effects following amphetamine compared to Non-choosers. The Choosers also exhibited a greater increase in systolic blood pressure, but not heart rate. The groups did not differ on demographic characteristics, mood states before drug administration or personality. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the idea that pleasurable subjective responses to amphetamine, including positive mood, elation, and stimulant-like effects influence behavioral choice of the drug. SN - 1873-5177 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33675838/Subjective_responses_predict_d_amphetamine_choice_in_healthy_volunteers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091-3057(21)00057-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -