Dietary Supplementation of Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11322 Combinations Enhance Growth and Cellular and Humoral Immunity in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2021 10; 13(5):1277-1291.PA
Experiments were conducted to identify different ratios of Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11322 mixtures at a concentration of 1 × 108 CFU/g diet; the effects on growth and cellular and humoral immune responses and the characteristics of disease protection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Flounder were divided into six groups and fed control diet D-1 (without Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and L. plantarum KCCM 11322), positive control diets D-2 (Bacillus sp. SJ-10 at 1 × 108 CFU/g feed) and D-3 (L. plantarum KCCM 11322 at 1 × 108 CFU/g feed); or treatment diets D-4 (3:1 Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and L. plantarum KCCM 11322 at 0.75 + 0.25 × 108 CFU/g feed), D-5 (1:1 Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and L. plantarum KCCM 11322 at 0.50 + 0.50 × 108 CFU/g feed), or D-6 (1:3 Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and L. plantarum KCCM 11322 at 0.25 + 0.75 × 108 CFU/g feed) for 8 weeks. Group D-4 demonstrated better growth and feed utilization (P < 0.05) compared with the controls and positive controls. Similar modulation was also observed in respiratory burst for all treatments and in the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in different organs in D-4. D-4 and D-5 increased respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, lysozyme, and myeloperoxidase activities compared with the controls, and only D-4 increased microvilli length. When challenged with 1 × 108 CFU/mL Streptococcus iniae, the fish in the D-4 and D-5 groups survived up to 14 days, whereas the fish in the other groups reached 100% mortality at 11.50 days. Collectively, a ratio-specific Bacillus sp. SJ-10 and L. plantarum KCCM 11322 mixture (3:1) was associated with elevated growth, innate immunity, and streptococcosis resistance (3:1 and 1:1) compared with the control and single probiotic diets.