In vitro acaricidal activity of green synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae), and its toxicity on Swiss albino mice.Exp Appl Acarol. 2021 Apr; 83(4):611-633.EA
The green synthesized nanoparticles have been determined as a novel pesticide against arthropod pests. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal activity of green synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) using aqueous extract of Melia azedarach ripened fruits against different developmental stages of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii in addition to their toxic effect on laboratory animals. The synthesized NiO NPs were characterized by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The UV-Vis spectra of the NiO NPs showed an absorption peak at 307 nm. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups used for capping and stabilization of NiO NPs with strong bands at 3416.2 and 1626.6 cm-1. The SEM images of the NiO NPs exhibited a size ranging from 21 to 35 nm. The immersion test was used for the in vitro application of the synthesized NiO NPs on the various tick stages (egg, nymph, larva, and adult). Mortality percentages and LC50 values of each tick stage were calculated. The oviposition and hatchability of the engorged females were monitored for the survived tick after treatment. The LC50 values for NiO NPs on embryonated eggs, larvae, and engorged nymphs were 5.00, 7.15, and 1.90 mg/mL, respectively. The egg productive index (EPI), egg number, and hatchability (%) were lower in females treated with the NiO NPs than in control ticks. The toxicity of the NiO NPs on laboratory animals was also investigated using Swiss albino mice by oral dose of 500 mg/kg/day administration for five consecutive days. The hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The hematological analysis showed significant increase in the level of white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin (Hb). Biochemical analysis showed non-significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine amino transferase (ALT). We concluded that NiO NPs have a significant acaricidal activity as demonstrated on eggs, larvae, engorged nymphs, and fully fed females of H. dromedarii. From a toxicological point of view further in vivo investigations are needed to determine the mechanism of toxic effect of NiO NPs.