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Withanone from Withania somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2021; 15:1111-1133.DD

Abstract

PURPOSE

SARS-CoV-2 engages human ACE2 through its spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD) to enter the host cell. Recent computational studies have reported that withanone and withaferin A, phytochemicals found in Withania somnifera, target viral main protease (MPro) and host transmembrane TMPRSS2, and glucose related protein 78 (GRP78), respectively, implicating their potential as viral entry inhibitors. Absence of specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection has encouraged exploration of phytochemicals as potential antivirals.

AIM

This study aimed at in silico exploration, along with in vitro and in vivo validation of antiviral efficacy of the phytochemical withanone.

METHODS

Through molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and electrostatic energy calculation the plausible biochemical interactions between withanone and the ACE2-RBD complex were investigated. These in silico observations were biochemically validated by ELISA-based assays. Withanone-enriched extract from W. somnifera was tested for its ability to ameliorate clinically relevant pathological features, modelled in humanized zebrafish through SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike (S) protein induction.

RESULTS

Withanone bound efficiently at the interacting interface of the ACE2-RBD complex and destabilized it energetically. The electrostatic component of binding free energies of the complex was significantly decreased. The two intrachain salt bridge interactions (K31-E35) and the interchain long-range ion-pair (K31-E484), at the ACE2-RBD interface were completely abolished by withanone, in the 50 ns simulation. In vitro binding assay experimentally validated that withanone efficiently inhibited (IC50=0.33 ng/mL) the interaction between ACE2 and RBD, in a dose-dependent manner. A withanone-enriched extract, without any co-extracted withaferin A, was prepared from W. somnifera leaves. This enriched extract was found to be efficient in ameliorating human-like pathological responses induced in humanized zebrafish by SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike (S) protein.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this study provided experimental validation for computational insight into the potential of withanone as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus entry into the host cells.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India. Department of Allied and Applied Sciences, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India. Department of Allied and Applied Sciences, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, 249405, Uttarakhand, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Video-Audio Media

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33737804

Citation

Balkrishna, Acharya, et al. "Withanone From Withania Somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model." Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 15, 2021, pp. 1111-1133.
Balkrishna A, Pokhrel S, Singh H, et al. Withanone from Withania somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2021;15:1111-1133.
Balkrishna, A., Pokhrel, S., Singh, H., Joshi, M., Mulay, V. P., Haldar, S., & Varshney, A. (2021). Withanone from Withania somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 15, 1111-1133. https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S292805
Balkrishna A, et al. Withanone From Withania Somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2021;15:1111-1133. PubMed PMID: 33737804.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Withanone from Withania somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model. AU - Balkrishna,Acharya, AU - Pokhrel,Subarna, AU - Singh,Hoshiyar, AU - Joshi,Monali, AU - Mulay,Vallabh Prakash, AU - Haldar,Swati, AU - Varshney,Anurag, Y1 - 2021/03/11/ PY - 2020/11/20/received PY - 2021/01/19/accepted PY - 2021/3/19/entrez PY - 2021/3/20/pubmed PY - 2021/3/26/medline KW - ACE2-RBD complex KW - ELISA KW - SARS-CoV-2 S-protein KW - Withania somnifera KW - docking and MD simulation KW - humanized zebrafish model KW - withanone SP - 1111 EP - 1133 JF - Drug design, development and therapy JO - Drug Des Devel Ther VL - 15 N2 - PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 engages human ACE2 through its spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD) to enter the host cell. Recent computational studies have reported that withanone and withaferin A, phytochemicals found in Withania somnifera, target viral main protease (MPro) and host transmembrane TMPRSS2, and glucose related protein 78 (GRP78), respectively, implicating their potential as viral entry inhibitors. Absence of specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection has encouraged exploration of phytochemicals as potential antivirals. AIM: This study aimed at in silico exploration, along with in vitro and in vivo validation of antiviral efficacy of the phytochemical withanone. METHODS: Through molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and electrostatic energy calculation the plausible biochemical interactions between withanone and the ACE2-RBD complex were investigated. These in silico observations were biochemically validated by ELISA-based assays. Withanone-enriched extract from W. somnifera was tested for its ability to ameliorate clinically relevant pathological features, modelled in humanized zebrafish through SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike (S) protein induction. RESULTS: Withanone bound efficiently at the interacting interface of the ACE2-RBD complex and destabilized it energetically. The electrostatic component of binding free energies of the complex was significantly decreased. The two intrachain salt bridge interactions (K31-E35) and the interchain long-range ion-pair (K31-E484), at the ACE2-RBD interface were completely abolished by withanone, in the 50 ns simulation. In vitro binding assay experimentally validated that withanone efficiently inhibited (IC50=0.33 ng/mL) the interaction between ACE2 and RBD, in a dose-dependent manner. A withanone-enriched extract, without any co-extracted withaferin A, was prepared from W. somnifera leaves. This enriched extract was found to be efficient in ameliorating human-like pathological responses induced in humanized zebrafish by SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike (S) protein. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study provided experimental validation for computational insight into the potential of withanone as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus entry into the host cells. SN - 1177-8881 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33737804/Withanone_from_Withania_somnifera_Attenuates_SARS_CoV_2_RBD_and_Host_ACE2_Interactions_to_Rescue_Spike_Protein_Induced_Pathologies_in_Humanized_Zebrafish_Model_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S292805 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -