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Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review.
Front Pharmacol. 2020; 11:585331.FP

Abstract

Background:

The emergence of COVID-19 as a pandemic has resulted in the need for urgent development of vaccines and drugs and the conduction of clinical trials to fight the outbreak. Because of the time constraints associated with the development of vaccines and effective drugs, drug repurposing and other alternative treatment methods have been used to treat patients that have been infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and have acquired COVID-19.

Objective:

The objective of this systematic scoping review is to provide an overview of the molecular mechanism of action of repurposed drugs or alternative treatment medicines used to attenuate COVID-19 disease. Method: The research articles or gray literature, including theses, government reports, and official news online, were identified from four databases and one search engine. The full content of a total of 160 articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria was analyzed and information about six drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and chloroquine) and four Traditional Chinese Medicines (Shuang Huang Lian Kou Fu Ye, TCM combination of Bu Huan Jin Zheng Qi San and Da Yuan Yin, Xue Bi Jing Injection, and Qing Fei Pai Du Tang) was extracted.

Results:

All of the repurposed drugs and complementary medicine that have been used for the treatment of COVID-19 depend on the ability of the drug to inhibit the proliferation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus by binding to enzyme active sites, viral chain termination, or triggering of the molecular pathway, whereas Traditional Chinese Medicine plays a pivotal role in triggering the inflammation pathway, such as the neuraminidase blocker, to fight the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Clinical Research Centre, Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.Wildlife Health, Genetic and Forensic Laboratory, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sandakan, Malaysia.School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33746739

Citation

Lem, Fui Fui, et al. "Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: a Systematic Scoping Review." Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 11, 2020, p. 585331.
Lem FF, Opook F, Lee DJH, et al. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:585331.
Lem, F. F., Opook, F., Lee, D. J. H., Chee, F. T., Lawson, F. P., & Chin, S. N. (2020). Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 585331. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.585331
Lem FF, et al. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: a Systematic Scoping Review. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:585331. PubMed PMID: 33746739.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Molecular Mechanism of Action of Repurposed Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine Used for the Treatment of Patients Infected With COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review. AU - Lem,Fui Fui, AU - Opook,Fernandes, AU - Lee,Dexter Jiunn Herng, AU - Chee,Fong Tyng, AU - Lawson,Fahcina P, AU - Chin,Su Na, Y1 - 2021/02/12/ PY - 2020/10/05/received PY - 2020/12/21/accepted PY - 2021/3/22/entrez PY - 2021/3/23/pubmed PY - 2021/3/23/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - alternative medicine KW - molecular mechanism KW - repurposed drugs SP - 585331 EP - 585331 JF - Frontiers in pharmacology JO - Front Pharmacol VL - 11 N2 - Background: The emergence of COVID-19 as a pandemic has resulted in the need for urgent development of vaccines and drugs and the conduction of clinical trials to fight the outbreak. Because of the time constraints associated with the development of vaccines and effective drugs, drug repurposing and other alternative treatment methods have been used to treat patients that have been infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and have acquired COVID-19. Objective: The objective of this systematic scoping review is to provide an overview of the molecular mechanism of action of repurposed drugs or alternative treatment medicines used to attenuate COVID-19 disease. Method: The research articles or gray literature, including theses, government reports, and official news online, were identified from four databases and one search engine. The full content of a total of 160 articles that fulfilled our inclusion criteria was analyzed and information about six drugs (ritonavir, lopinavir, oseltamivir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and chloroquine) and four Traditional Chinese Medicines (Shuang Huang Lian Kou Fu Ye, TCM combination of Bu Huan Jin Zheng Qi San and Da Yuan Yin, Xue Bi Jing Injection, and Qing Fei Pai Du Tang) was extracted. Results: All of the repurposed drugs and complementary medicine that have been used for the treatment of COVID-19 depend on the ability of the drug to inhibit the proliferation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus by binding to enzyme active sites, viral chain termination, or triggering of the molecular pathway, whereas Traditional Chinese Medicine plays a pivotal role in triggering the inflammation pathway, such as the neuraminidase blocker, to fight the SARS-CoV-2 virus. SN - 1663-9812 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33746739/Molecular_Mechanism_of_Action_of_Repurposed_Drugs_and_Traditional_Chinese_Medicine_Used_for_the_Treatment_of_Patients_Infected_With_COVID-19:_A_Systematic_Scoping_Review. L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.585331 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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