Outcomes of newborns to mothers with COVID-19.Infect Dis Now. 2021 Aug; 51(5):435-439.ID
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. Given the sharply increased infection rate, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is correspondingly on the rise. SARS-CoV-2 infection is transmitted through droplets; though hypothesized, other transmission routes have not been confirmed. As of now, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 can possibly be transmitted from the mother to the fetus.
This study examines the medical records of 30 neonates born to women with COVID-19, the objective being to provide documented information on maternal-child transmission and infant outcomes.
Out of the 30 newborns, 28 had negative PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2; among their mothers, fifteen had fever, nine had cough and twenty had delivered by cesarean section. The median birth term was 37wk2dy, and twenty of the neonates were male. Most of them were asymptomatic, except for the three who presented with shortness of breath. Two of them were intubated and both died, the first because of severe sepsis and the second due to severe hyaline membrane disease. As regards the two infected neonates, the first represents a probable case of congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection, which appears unlikely in the second case. The outcome for both of them was good, without any complications.
Maternal-fetal transmission of the SARS- CoV-2 virus was not detected in the majority of the reported cases, although two of 30 neonates had positive qRT-PCR test results. Our study supports the hypothesis that though it seldom actually occurs, in utero SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission is possible.