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Unprecedented reduction in air pollution and corresponding short-term premature mortality associated with COVID-19 lockdown in Delhi, India.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2021 09; 71(9):1085-1101.JA

Abstract

Countries around the world introduced strict restrictions on movement and activities known as 'lockdowns' to restrict the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from the end of 2019. A sudden improvement in air quality was observed globally as a result of these lockdowns. To provide insight into the changes in air pollution levels in response to the COVID-19 restrictions we have compared surface air quality data in Delhi during four phases of lockdown and the first phase of the restriction easing period (25 March to 30 June 2020) with data from a baseline period (2018-2019). Simultaneously, short-term exposure of PM2.5 and O3 attributed premature mortality were calculated to understand the health benefit of the change in air quality. Ground-level observations in Delhi showed that concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 dropped substantially in 2020 during the overall study period compared with the same period in previous years, with average reductions of ~49%, ~39%, and ~39%, respectively. An overall lower reduction in O3 of ~19% was observed for Delhi. A slight increase in O3 was found in Delhi's industrial and traffic regions. The highest peak of the diurnal variation decreased substantially for all the pollutants at every phase. The decrease in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations in 2020, prevented 904 total premature deaths, a 60% improvement when compared to the figures for 2018-2019. The restrictions on human activities during the lockdown have reduced anthropogenic emissions and subsequently improved air quality and human health in one of the most polluted cities in the world.Implications: I am submitting herewith the manuscript entitled "Unprecedented Reduction in Air Pollution and Corresponding Short-term Premature Mortality Associated with COVID-19 Forced Confinement in Delhi, India" for potential publishing in your journal.The novelty of this research lies in: (1) we utilized ground-level air quality data in Delhi during four phases of lockdown and the first phase of unlocking period (25th March to 30th June) for 2020 as well as data from the baseline period (2018-2019) to provide an early insight into the changes in air pollution levels in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) Chatarize the change of diurnal variation of the pollutants and (3) we assess the health risk due to PM2.5 and O3. Results from ground-level observations in Delhi showed that concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 substantially dropped in 2020 during the overall study period compared to the similar period in previous years, with an average reduction of ~49%, ~39%, and ~39%, respectively. In the case of O3, the overall reduction was observed as ~19% in Delhi, while a slight increase was found in industrial and traffic regions. And consequently, the highest peak of the diurnal variation decreased substantially for all the pollutants. The health impact assessment of the changes in air quality indicated that 904 short-term premature deaths (~60%) were prevented due to the decline in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations in the study period. The restrictions on human activities during the lockdown have reduced the anthropogenic emissions and subsequently improved air quality and human health in one of the most polluted cities in the world.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Air Quality Research Group, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Air Quality Research Group, Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.Centre for Strategic Urban Management, CSIR-NEERI, Nehru Marg, Nagpur, India.Transportation Planning and Environment Division, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi, India.Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33764280

Citation

Maji, Kamal Jyoti, et al. "Unprecedented Reduction in Air Pollution and Corresponding Short-term Premature Mortality Associated With COVID-19 Lockdown in Delhi, India." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995), vol. 71, no. 9, 2021, pp. 1085-1101.
Maji KJ, Namdeo A, Bell M, et al. Unprecedented reduction in air pollution and corresponding short-term premature mortality associated with COVID-19 lockdown in Delhi, India. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2021;71(9):1085-1101.
Maji, K. J., Namdeo, A., Bell, M., Goodman, P., Nagendra, S. M. S., Barnes, J. H., De Vito, L., Hayes, E., Longhurst, J. W., Kumar, R., Sharma, N., Kuppili, S. K., & Alshetty, D. (2021). Unprecedented reduction in air pollution and corresponding short-term premature mortality associated with COVID-19 lockdown in Delhi, India. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995), 71(9), 1085-1101. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2021.1905104
Maji KJ, et al. Unprecedented Reduction in Air Pollution and Corresponding Short-term Premature Mortality Associated With COVID-19 Lockdown in Delhi, India. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2021;71(9):1085-1101. PubMed PMID: 33764280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unprecedented reduction in air pollution and corresponding short-term premature mortality associated with COVID-19 lockdown in Delhi, India. AU - Maji,Kamal Jyoti, AU - Namdeo,Anil, AU - Bell,Margaret, AU - Goodman,Paul, AU - Nagendra,S M Shiva, AU - Barnes,Joanna H, AU - De Vito,Laura, AU - Hayes,Enda, AU - Longhurst,James W, AU - Kumar,Rakesh, AU - Sharma,Niraj, AU - Kuppili,Sudheer Kumar, AU - Alshetty,Dheeraj, Y1 - 2021/04/15/ PY - 2021/3/26/pubmed PY - 2021/9/22/medline PY - 2021/3/25/entrez SP - 1085 EP - 1101 JF - Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) JO - J Air Waste Manag Assoc VL - 71 IS - 9 N2 - Countries around the world introduced strict restrictions on movement and activities known as 'lockdowns' to restrict the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from the end of 2019. A sudden improvement in air quality was observed globally as a result of these lockdowns. To provide insight into the changes in air pollution levels in response to the COVID-19 restrictions we have compared surface air quality data in Delhi during four phases of lockdown and the first phase of the restriction easing period (25 March to 30 June 2020) with data from a baseline period (2018-2019). Simultaneously, short-term exposure of PM2.5 and O3 attributed premature mortality were calculated to understand the health benefit of the change in air quality. Ground-level observations in Delhi showed that concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 dropped substantially in 2020 during the overall study period compared with the same period in previous years, with average reductions of ~49%, ~39%, and ~39%, respectively. An overall lower reduction in O3 of ~19% was observed for Delhi. A slight increase in O3 was found in Delhi's industrial and traffic regions. The highest peak of the diurnal variation decreased substantially for all the pollutants at every phase. The decrease in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations in 2020, prevented 904 total premature deaths, a 60% improvement when compared to the figures for 2018-2019. The restrictions on human activities during the lockdown have reduced anthropogenic emissions and subsequently improved air quality and human health in one of the most polluted cities in the world.Implications: I am submitting herewith the manuscript entitled "Unprecedented Reduction in Air Pollution and Corresponding Short-term Premature Mortality Associated with COVID-19 Forced Confinement in Delhi, India" for potential publishing in your journal.The novelty of this research lies in: (1) we utilized ground-level air quality data in Delhi during four phases of lockdown and the first phase of unlocking period (25th March to 30th June) for 2020 as well as data from the baseline period (2018-2019) to provide an early insight into the changes in air pollution levels in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) Chatarize the change of diurnal variation of the pollutants and (3) we assess the health risk due to PM2.5 and O3. Results from ground-level observations in Delhi showed that concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 substantially dropped in 2020 during the overall study period compared to the similar period in previous years, with an average reduction of ~49%, ~39%, and ~39%, respectively. In the case of O3, the overall reduction was observed as ~19% in Delhi, while a slight increase was found in industrial and traffic regions. And consequently, the highest peak of the diurnal variation decreased substantially for all the pollutants. The health impact assessment of the changes in air quality indicated that 904 short-term premature deaths (~60%) were prevented due to the decline in PM2.5 and O3 concentrations in the study period. The restrictions on human activities during the lockdown have reduced the anthropogenic emissions and subsequently improved air quality and human health in one of the most polluted cities in the world. SN - 2162-2906 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33764280/Unprecedented_reduction_in_air_pollution_and_corresponding_short_term_premature_mortality_associated_with_COVID_19_lockdown_in_Delhi_India_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10962247.2021.1905104 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -