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Exploring the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on consumer responses to sugar taxes and front-of-pack nutrition labels in an experimental marketplace.
Can J Public Health. 2021 08; 112(4):647-662.CJ

Abstract

INTERVENTION

This study examined whether the impacts of sugar taxes and front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels differ across socio-demographic subgroups.

RESEARCH QUESTION

What are the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on the nutrient content of participants' purchases in response to varying taxation levels and FOP labels?

METHODS

Data from an experimental marketplace were analyzed. A sample of 3584 Canadians aged 13 years and older received $5 to purchase an item from a selection of 20 beverages and 20 snack foods. Participants were shown products with one of five FOP labels and completed eight within-subject purchasing tasks with different tax conditions. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the main and moderating effects of 11 individual-level variables on the sugars, sodium, saturated fats, and calorie content of participants' purchases.

RESULTS

Participants who were younger, male, and more frequent consumers of sugary drinks purchased products containing more sugars, sodium, saturated fats, and calories. Sex and age moderated the relationship between tax condition and sugars or calories purchased: female participants were more responsive than males to a tax that included fruit juice, and younger participants were more responsive to all sugar tax conditions than older participants. Reported thirst and education level also moderated the relationship between tax condition and calories purchased. No individual-level characteristics moderated the effects of FOP labels.

CONCLUSION

A small proportion (7 of 176) of the moderating effects tested in this study were significant. Sugar taxes and FOP labelling policies may therefore produce similar effects across key socio-demographic groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada. david.hammond@uwaterloo.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33768507

Citation

Acton, Rachel B., et al. "Exploring the Main and Moderating Effects of Individual-level Characteristics On Consumer Responses to Sugar Taxes and Front-of-pack Nutrition Labels in an Experimental Marketplace." Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, vol. 112, no. 4, 2021, pp. 647-662.
Acton RB, Kirkpatrick SI, Hammond D. Exploring the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on consumer responses to sugar taxes and front-of-pack nutrition labels in an experimental marketplace. Can J Public Health. 2021;112(4):647-662.
Acton, R. B., Kirkpatrick, S. I., & Hammond, D. (2021). Exploring the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on consumer responses to sugar taxes and front-of-pack nutrition labels in an experimental marketplace. Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 112(4), 647-662. https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-021-00475-x
Acton RB, Kirkpatrick SI, Hammond D. Exploring the Main and Moderating Effects of Individual-level Characteristics On Consumer Responses to Sugar Taxes and Front-of-pack Nutrition Labels in an Experimental Marketplace. Can J Public Health. 2021;112(4):647-662. PubMed PMID: 33768507.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on consumer responses to sugar taxes and front-of-pack nutrition labels in an experimental marketplace. AU - Acton,Rachel B, AU - Kirkpatrick,Sharon I, AU - Hammond,David, Y1 - 2021/03/25/ PY - 2020/04/23/received PY - 2021/01/11/accepted PY - 2021/3/27/pubmed PY - 2021/10/27/medline PY - 2021/3/26/entrez KW - Epidemiologic effect modifiers KW - Health policy KW - Nutrition labelling KW - Nutrition policy KW - Socio-economic factors KW - Taxes SP - 647 EP - 662 JF - Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique JO - Can J Public Health VL - 112 IS - 4 N2 - INTERVENTION: This study examined whether the impacts of sugar taxes and front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels differ across socio-demographic subgroups. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on the nutrient content of participants' purchases in response to varying taxation levels and FOP labels? METHODS: Data from an experimental marketplace were analyzed. A sample of 3584 Canadians aged 13 years and older received $5 to purchase an item from a selection of 20 beverages and 20 snack foods. Participants were shown products with one of five FOP labels and completed eight within-subject purchasing tasks with different tax conditions. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the main and moderating effects of 11 individual-level variables on the sugars, sodium, saturated fats, and calorie content of participants' purchases. RESULTS: Participants who were younger, male, and more frequent consumers of sugary drinks purchased products containing more sugars, sodium, saturated fats, and calories. Sex and age moderated the relationship between tax condition and sugars or calories purchased: female participants were more responsive than males to a tax that included fruit juice, and younger participants were more responsive to all sugar tax conditions than older participants. Reported thirst and education level also moderated the relationship between tax condition and calories purchased. No individual-level characteristics moderated the effects of FOP labels. CONCLUSION: A small proportion (7 of 176) of the moderating effects tested in this study were significant. Sugar taxes and FOP labelling policies may therefore produce similar effects across key socio-demographic groups. SN - 1920-7476 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33768507/Exploring_the_main_and_moderating_effects_of_individual_level_characteristics_on_consumer_responses_to_sugar_taxes_and_front_of_pack_nutrition_labels_in_an_experimental_marketplace_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-021-00475-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -