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Mask use, risk-mitigation behaviours and pandemic fatigue during the COVID-19 pandemic in five cities in Australia, the UK and USA: A cross-sectional survey.
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 May; 106:199-207.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine patterns of mask wearing and other infection prevention behaviours, over two time periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, in cities where mask wearing was not a cultural norm.

METHODS

A cross-sectional survey of masks and other preventive behaviours in adults aged ≥18 years was conducted in five cities: Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; London, UK; and Phoenix and New York, USA. Data were analysed according to the epidemiology of COVID-19, mask mandates and a range of predictors of mask wearing.

RESULTS

The most common measures used were avoiding public areas (80.4%), hand hygiene (76.4%), wearing masks (71.8%) and distancing (67.6%). Over 40% of people avoided medical facilities. These measures decreased from March-July 2020. Pandemic fatigue was associated with younger age, low perceived severity of COVID-19 and declining COVID-19 prevalence. Predictors of mask wearing were location (US, UK), mandates, age <50 years, education, having symptoms and knowing someone with COVID-19. Negative experiences with mask wearing and low perceived severity of COVID-19 reduced mask wearing. Most respondents (98%) believed that hand washing and distancing were necessary, and 80% reported no change or stricter adherence to these measures when wearing masks.

CONCLUSION

Pandemic mitigation measures were widely reported across all cities, but decreased between March and July 2020. Pandemic fatigue was more common in younger people. Cities with mandates had higher rates of mask wearing. Promotion of mask use for older people may be useful. Masks did not result in a reduction of other hygiene measures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, United States. Electronic address: r.macintyre@unsw.edu.au.Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.School of Population Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, United States.Faculty of Natural Mathematics and Sciences, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom.School of Population Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33771668

Citation

MacIntyre, Chandini Raina, et al. "Mask Use, Risk-mitigation Behaviours and Pandemic Fatigue During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Five Cities in Australia, the UK and USA: a Cross-sectional Survey." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 106, 2021, pp. 199-207.
MacIntyre CR, Nguyen PY, Chughtai AA, et al. Mask use, risk-mitigation behaviours and pandemic fatigue during the COVID-19 pandemic in five cities in Australia, the UK and USA: A cross-sectional survey. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;106:199-207.
MacIntyre, C. R., Nguyen, P. Y., Chughtai, A. A., Trent, M., Gerber, B., Steinhofel, K., & Seale, H. (2021). Mask use, risk-mitigation behaviours and pandemic fatigue during the COVID-19 pandemic in five cities in Australia, the UK and USA: A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 106, 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.056
MacIntyre CR, et al. Mask Use, Risk-mitigation Behaviours and Pandemic Fatigue During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Five Cities in Australia, the UK and USA: a Cross-sectional Survey. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;106:199-207. PubMed PMID: 33771668.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mask use, risk-mitigation behaviours and pandemic fatigue during the COVID-19 pandemic in five cities in Australia, the UK and USA: A cross-sectional survey. AU - MacIntyre,Chandini Raina, AU - Nguyen,Phi-Yen, AU - Chughtai,Abrar Ahmad, AU - Trent,Mallory, AU - Gerber,Brian, AU - Steinhofel,Kathleen, AU - Seale,Holly, Y1 - 2021/03/23/ PY - 2021/01/27/received PY - 2021/03/15/revised PY - 2021/03/18/accepted PY - 2021/3/28/pubmed PY - 2021/6/5/medline PY - 2021/3/27/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Health behaviours KW - Health policy KW - Mask use KW - Pandemic fatigue KW - Risk mitigation SP - 199 EP - 207 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 106 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine patterns of mask wearing and other infection prevention behaviours, over two time periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, in cities where mask wearing was not a cultural norm. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of masks and other preventive behaviours in adults aged ≥18 years was conducted in five cities: Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; London, UK; and Phoenix and New York, USA. Data were analysed according to the epidemiology of COVID-19, mask mandates and a range of predictors of mask wearing. RESULTS: The most common measures used were avoiding public areas (80.4%), hand hygiene (76.4%), wearing masks (71.8%) and distancing (67.6%). Over 40% of people avoided medical facilities. These measures decreased from March-July 2020. Pandemic fatigue was associated with younger age, low perceived severity of COVID-19 and declining COVID-19 prevalence. Predictors of mask wearing were location (US, UK), mandates, age <50 years, education, having symptoms and knowing someone with COVID-19. Negative experiences with mask wearing and low perceived severity of COVID-19 reduced mask wearing. Most respondents (98%) believed that hand washing and distancing were necessary, and 80% reported no change or stricter adherence to these measures when wearing masks. CONCLUSION: Pandemic mitigation measures were widely reported across all cities, but decreased between March and July 2020. Pandemic fatigue was more common in younger people. Cities with mandates had higher rates of mask wearing. Promotion of mask use for older people may be useful. Masks did not result in a reduction of other hygiene measures. SN - 1878-3511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33771668/Mask_use_risk_mitigation_behaviours_and_pandemic_fatigue_during_the_COVID_19_pandemic_in_five_cities_in_Australia_the_UK_and_USA:_A_cross_sectional_survey_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(21)00274-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -