Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus facilitates ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth and polychlorinated biphenyls degradation in a soil applied with nanoscale zero-valent iron.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Jun 01; 215:112170.EE
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) shows an excellent degradation effect on chlorinated contaminants in soil, but poses a threat to plants in combination with phytoremediation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus can reduce the phyototoxicity of nZVI, but their combined impacts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degradation and plant growth remain unclear. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of nZVI and/or Funneliformis caledonium on soil PCB degradation and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) antioxidative responses. The amendment of nZVI significantly reduced not only the total and homolog concentrations of PCBs in the soil, but also the ryegrass biomass as well as soil available P and root P concentrations. Moreover, nZVI significantly decreased leaf superoxide disutase (SOD) activity, while tended to decrease the protein content. In contrast, the additional inoculation of F. caledonium significantly increased leaf SOD activity and protein content, while tended to increase the catalase activity and tended to decrease the malondialdehyde content. The additional inoculation of F. caledonium also significantly increased soil alkaline phosphatase activity, and tended to increase root P concentration, but had no significantly effects on soil available P concentration, the biomass and P acquisition of ryegrass, which could be attributed to the fixation of soil available nutrients by nZVI. Additionally, F. caledonium facilitated PCB degradation in the nZVI-applied soil. Thus, AM fungus can alleviate the nZVI-induced phytotoxicity, showing great application potentials in accompany with nZVI for soil remediation.