The ménage à trois of autophagy, lipid droplets and liver disease.Autophagy. 2021 Apr 02 [Online ahead of print]A
Autophagic pathways cross with lipid homeostasis and thus provide energy and essential building blocks that are indispensable for liver functions. Energy deficiencies are compensated by breaking down lipid droplets (LDs), intracellular organelles that store neutral lipids, in part by a selective type of autophagy, referred to as lipophagy. The process of lipophagy does not appear to be properly regulated in fatty liver diseases (FLDs), an important risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Here we provide an overview on our current knowledge of the biogenesis and functions of LDs, and the mechanisms underlying their lysosomal turnover by autophagic processes. This review also focuses on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a specific type of FLD characterized by steatosis, chronic inflammation and cell death. Particular attention is paid to the role of macroautophagy and macrolipophagy in relation to the parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells of the liver in NASH, as this disease has been associated with inappropriate lipophagy in various cell types of the liver.Abbreviations: ACAT: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; ACAC/ACC: acetyl-CoA carboxylase; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATG: autophagy related; AUP1: AUP1 lipid droplet regulating VLDL assembly factor; BECN1/Vps30/Atg6: beclin 1; BSCL2/seipin: BSCL2 lipid droplet biogenesis associated, seipin; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; CREB1/CREB: cAMP responsive element binding protein 1; CXCR3: C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3; DAGs: diacylglycerols; DAMPs: danger/damage-associated molecular patterns; DEN: diethylnitrosamine; DGAT: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase; DNL: de novo lipogenesis; EHBP1/NACSIN (EH domain binding protein 1); EHD2/PAST2: EH domain containing 2; CoA: coenzyme A; CCL/chemokines: chemokine ligands; CCl4: carbon tetrachloride; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complexes required for transport; FA: fatty acid; FFAs: free fatty acids; FFC: high saturated fats, fructose and cholesterol; FGF21: fibroblast growth factor 21; FITM/FIT: fat storage inducing transmembrane protein; FLD: fatty liver diseases; FOXO: forkhead box O; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GPAT: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; HECT: homologous to E6-AP C-terminus; HFCD: high fat, choline deficient; HFD: high-fat diet; HSCs: hepatic stellate cells; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; ITCH/AIP4: itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; KCs: Kupffer cells; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; LDs: lipid droplets; LDL: low density lipoprotein; LEP/OB: leptin; LEPR/OBR: leptin receptor; LIPA/LAL: lipase A, lysosomal acid type; LIPE/HSL: lipase E, hormone sensitive type; LIR: LC3-interacting region; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; LSECs: liver sinusoidal endothelial cells; MAGs: monoacylglycerols; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MAP3K5/ASK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCD: methionine-choline deficient; MGLL/MGL: monoglyceride lipase; MLXIPL/ChREBP: MLX interacting protein like; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAS: NAFLD activity score; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NPC: NPC intracellular cholesterol transporter; NR1H3/LXRα: nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3; NR1H4/FXR: nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 4; PDGF: platelet derived growth factor; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PLIN: perilipin; PNPLA: patatin like phospholipase domain containing; PNPLA2/ATGL: patatin like phospholipase domain containing 2; PNPLA3/adiponutrin: patatin like phospholipase domain containing 3; PPAR: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor; PPARA/PPARα: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha; PPARD/PPARδ: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta; PPARG/PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; PPARGC1A/PGC1α: PPARG coactivator 1 alpha; PRKAA/AMPK: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SE: sterol esters; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SPART/SPG20: spartin; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SREBF1/SREBP1c: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1; TAGs: triacylglycerols; TFE3: transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TGFB1/TGFβ: transforming growth factor beta 1; Ub: ubiquitin; UBE2G2/UBC7: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 G2; ULK1/Atg1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; USF1: upstream transcription factor 1; VLDL: very-low density lipoprotein; VPS: vacuolar protein sorting; WIPI: WD-repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting; WDR: WD repeat domain.