Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties and quality control/quality assurance.J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jul 15; 275:114054.JE
Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a medicinal herb of the Asian countries used in many traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of diarrhea, flu, leprosy, leptospirosis, malaria, rabies, upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, syphilis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to provide the comprehensive, accurate and authentic information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of various extracts/fractions as well as phytocostituents of A. paniculata. In addition, this review also aims to provide advance and sensitive analytical methods along with chemical markers used in the standardization of herbal products for quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All relevant publications were considered within the years 1983-2020. The publications were searched from Google Scholar, PubChem, Chemspider, PubMed, Elsevier, Wiley, Web of Science, China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases and ResearchGate using a combination of various relevant keywords. Besides, relevant published books and chapters were also considered those providing an overview of extant secondary literature related to traditional knowledge, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of the plant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this review, 344 compounds, including, terpenoid lactones, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenes and volatile compounds were summarized out of which more than half of the compounds have no reported pharmacological activities yet. Terpenoid lactones and flavonoids are the major bioactive classes of compounds of A. paniculata which are responsible for pharmacological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant activities, respectively. Biosynthetic pathways and active sites for target proteins of both terpenoid lactones and flavonoids were considered. Analgesic, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifertility, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipyretic, antiviral, antiretroviral, antivenom, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective activities have been also reported. Andrographolide is a major characteristic active principle and responsible for most of the pharmacological activities. Therefore, andrographolide has been selected as a marker for the standardization of raw and marketed herbal products by TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, GC-MS, HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS/MS methods for QC/QA.
Conclusive evidence showed that the pharmacological activities reported in crude extracts and chemical markers are supporting and provides confidence in the traditional use of A. paniculata as a herbal medicine. The andrographolide could be used as a chemical marker for the QC/QA of raw and A. paniculata derived herbal products. Lactone ring in terpenoid lactone is an active site for targeted proteins. More efforts should be focused on the identification of the chemical markers from A. paniculata to provide a practical basis for QC/QA. Several aspects such as the mechanism of therapeutic potential, molecular docking technology and multi-target network pharmacology are very important for drug discovery and needed more investigation and should be considered. This compilation may be helpful in further study and QC/QA.