Gastroscopic screening for gastric carcinoids and carcinoma in pernicious anemia.Endoscopy. 1988 Mar; 20(2):52-6.E
Among 196 patients examined in 1972-1985 because of pernicious anemia (PA), 105 patients under the age of 76 years were invited for gastroscopic screening, and 71 patients (68%) participated. Gastroscopy revealed carcinoid tumor(s) in 5 patients (7%) but no case of carcinoma. In addition, one patient with gastric carcinoid, 5 patients with adenocarcinomas and one with a concomitant carcinoid and carcinoma had already been diagnosed earlier in the overall PA group on the basis of clinical symptoms. Thus, within a follow-up of 0-20 years (mean 7 years) the total frequency of gastric carcinoid tumors was 4% and that of carcinoma 3%. Patients with carcinoid tumors had a long duration of PA and young age of onset; these cases were not necessarily those with the highest serum gastrin levels. Even though most gastric carcinoids are small subclinical tumors of uncertain clinical significance, their unexpectedly high frequency, combined within the risk of carcinoma in PA, might indicate the need for gastroscopic follow-up, at least in cases of juvenile onset PA.