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Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality and Resulting Public Health Benefits in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.
Front Public Health. 2021; 9:642630.FP

Abstract

Meteorology and long-term trends in air pollutant concentrations may obscure the results from short-term policies implemented to improve air quality. This study presents changes in CO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 based on their anomalies during the COVID-19 partial (Phase 2) and total (Phase 3) lockdowns in Mexico City (MCMA). To minimise the impact of the air pollutant long-term trends, pollutant anomalies were calculated using as baseline truncated Fourier series, fitted with data from 2016 to 2019, and then compared with those from the lockdown. Additionally, days with stagnant conditions and heavy rain were excluded to reduce the impact of extreme weather changes. Satellite observations for NO2 and CO were used to contrast the ground-based derived results. During the lockdown Phase 2, only NO2 exhibited significant decreases (p < 0.05) of between 10 and 23% due to reductions in motor vehicle emissions. By contrast, O3 increased (p < 0.05) between 16 and 40% at the same sites where NO2 decreased. During Phase 3, significant decreases (p < 0.05) were observed for NO2 (43%), PM10 (20%), and PM2.5 (32%) in response to the total lockdown. Although O3 concentrations were lower in Phase 3 than during Phase 2, those did not decrease (p < 0.05) from the baseline at any site despite the total lockdown. SO2 decreased only during Phase 3 in a near-road environment. Satellite observations confirmed that NO2 decreased and CO stabilised during the total lockdown. Air pollutant changes during the lockdown could be overestimated between 2 and 10-fold without accounting for the influences of meteorology and long-term trends in pollutant concentrations. Air quality improved significantly during the lockdown driven by reduced NO2 and PM2.5 emissions despite increases in O3, resulting in health benefits for the MCMA population. A health assessment conducted suggested that around 588 deaths related to air pollution exposure were averted during the lockdown. Our results show that to reduce O3 within the MCMA, policies must focus on reducing VOCs emissions from non-mobile sources. The measures implemented during the COVID-19 lockdowns provide valuable information to reduce air pollution through a range of abatement strategies for emissions other than from motor vehicles.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.CONACYT, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de Información Geoespacial, Querétaro, Mexico.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático, Coordinación de Contaminación y Salud Ambiental, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33842423

Citation

Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y., et al. "Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown On Air Quality and Resulting Public Health Benefits in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area." Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 9, 2021, p. 642630.
Hernández-Paniagua IY, Valdez SI, Almanza V, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality and Resulting Public Health Benefits in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Front Public Health. 2021;9:642630.
Hernández-Paniagua, I. Y., Valdez, S. I., Almanza, V., Rivera-Cárdenas, C., Grutter, M., Stremme, W., García-Reynoso, A., & Ruiz-Suárez, L. G. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality and Resulting Public Health Benefits in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 642630. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.642630
Hernández-Paniagua IY, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown On Air Quality and Resulting Public Health Benefits in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Front Public Health. 2021;9:642630. PubMed PMID: 33842423.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Air Quality and Resulting Public Health Benefits in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. AU - Hernández-Paniagua,Iván Y, AU - Valdez,S Ivvan, AU - Almanza,Victor, AU - Rivera-Cárdenas,Claudia, AU - Grutter,Michel, AU - Stremme,Wolfgang, AU - García-Reynoso,Agustín, AU - Ruiz-Suárez,Luis Gerardo, Y1 - 2021/03/25/ PY - 2020/12/16/received PY - 2021/02/25/accepted PY - 2021/4/12/entrez PY - 2021/4/13/pubmed PY - 2021/5/1/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Fourier series KW - air pollutant emissions KW - meteorology KW - remote sensing SP - 642630 EP - 642630 JF - Frontiers in public health JO - Front Public Health VL - 9 N2 - Meteorology and long-term trends in air pollutant concentrations may obscure the results from short-term policies implemented to improve air quality. This study presents changes in CO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 based on their anomalies during the COVID-19 partial (Phase 2) and total (Phase 3) lockdowns in Mexico City (MCMA). To minimise the impact of the air pollutant long-term trends, pollutant anomalies were calculated using as baseline truncated Fourier series, fitted with data from 2016 to 2019, and then compared with those from the lockdown. Additionally, days with stagnant conditions and heavy rain were excluded to reduce the impact of extreme weather changes. Satellite observations for NO2 and CO were used to contrast the ground-based derived results. During the lockdown Phase 2, only NO2 exhibited significant decreases (p < 0.05) of between 10 and 23% due to reductions in motor vehicle emissions. By contrast, O3 increased (p < 0.05) between 16 and 40% at the same sites where NO2 decreased. During Phase 3, significant decreases (p < 0.05) were observed for NO2 (43%), PM10 (20%), and PM2.5 (32%) in response to the total lockdown. Although O3 concentrations were lower in Phase 3 than during Phase 2, those did not decrease (p < 0.05) from the baseline at any site despite the total lockdown. SO2 decreased only during Phase 3 in a near-road environment. Satellite observations confirmed that NO2 decreased and CO stabilised during the total lockdown. Air pollutant changes during the lockdown could be overestimated between 2 and 10-fold without accounting for the influences of meteorology and long-term trends in pollutant concentrations. Air quality improved significantly during the lockdown driven by reduced NO2 and PM2.5 emissions despite increases in O3, resulting in health benefits for the MCMA population. A health assessment conducted suggested that around 588 deaths related to air pollution exposure were averted during the lockdown. Our results show that to reduce O3 within the MCMA, policies must focus on reducing VOCs emissions from non-mobile sources. The measures implemented during the COVID-19 lockdowns provide valuable information to reduce air pollution through a range of abatement strategies for emissions other than from motor vehicles. SN - 2296-2565 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33842423/Impact_of_the_COVID_19_Lockdown_on_Air_Quality_and_Resulting_Public_Health_Benefits_in_the_Mexico_City_Metropolitan_Area_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.642630 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -