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Protective effect of eugenol on hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in male rats.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jul; 139:111588.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals. The prolonged exposure of it can lead to severe alterations and damage in different tissues including blood, liver, kidney and brain. Eugenol, a phenolic compound, is present in various aromatic plants. It acts as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the treatment of eugenol is beneficial against the hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation induced by Cd.

METHODS

To study the effect of eugenol in reversal of Cd toxicity, 24 albino rats were equally divided into four different groups: G1 Control (saline), G2 Eugenol (3 mg kg-1), G3 CdCl2 (5 mg kg-1) and G4 CdCl2 + Eugenol (5 mg kg-1 + 3 mg kg-1). All the groups were treated with gavage orally for the period of 21 days. After this treatment period, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. The hepatic antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the activities of SOD, Catalase and GST enzymes. The reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl oxidation (PCO) and thiol contents were measured in hepatic tissues. The activities of liver marker enzymes such as ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, TP, albumin, Bilirubin content and LDH were determined to assess the hepatic damage in different groups. Cd induced hepatic inflammation was determined by evaluating the levels of TNF-a, IL-6 and NO.

RESULTS

Oral intoxication of Cd for 21 days significantly elevated the level of hepatic markers including activities of LDH, GGT, ALP, ALT, AST and Bilirubin level. The albumin content, reduced GSH level, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly reduced in Cd treated group. The levels of inflammatory markers were significantly elevated in Cd treated group. The eugenol treatment was very effective and it significantly reversed the Cd induced biochemical alterations almost similar to that of control.

CONCLUSION

The results demonstrated that the eugenol possessed very strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential. The co-treatment of eugenol with Cd exhibited protective potential of eugenol against Cd induced toxicity. Eugenol was able to improve the cellular redox system in rats treated with Cd.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India.Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia.Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India.Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India. Electronic address: sharmabi@yahoo.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33862491

Citation

Kumar, Abhishek, et al. "Protective Effect of Eugenol On Hepatic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced By Cadmium in Male Rats." Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie, vol. 139, 2021, p. 111588.
Kumar A, Siddiqi NJ, Alrashood ST, et al. Protective effect of eugenol on hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in male rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021;139:111588.
Kumar, A., Siddiqi, N. J., Alrashood, S. T., Khan, H. A., Dubey, A., & Sharma, B. (2021). Protective effect of eugenol on hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in male rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie, 139, 111588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111588
Kumar A, et al. Protective Effect of Eugenol On Hepatic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Induced By Cadmium in Male Rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021;139:111588. PubMed PMID: 33862491.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Protective effect of eugenol on hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in male rats. AU - Kumar,Abhishek, AU - Siddiqi,Nikhat J, AU - Alrashood,Sara T, AU - Khan,Haseeb A, AU - Dubey,Anchal, AU - Sharma,Bechan, Y1 - 2021/04/14/ PY - 2020/12/17/received PY - 2021/04/01/revised PY - 2021/04/02/accepted PY - 2021/4/17/pubmed PY - 2021/8/12/medline PY - 2021/4/16/entrez KW - Cadmium KW - Eugenol KW - Hepatotoxicity KW - Inflammation KW - Oxidative stress SP - 111588 EP - 111588 JF - Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie JO - Biomed Pharmacother VL - 139 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals. The prolonged exposure of it can lead to severe alterations and damage in different tissues including blood, liver, kidney and brain. Eugenol, a phenolic compound, is present in various aromatic plants. It acts as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the treatment of eugenol is beneficial against the hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation induced by Cd. METHODS: To study the effect of eugenol in reversal of Cd toxicity, 24 albino rats were equally divided into four different groups: G1 Control (saline), G2 Eugenol (3 mg kg-1), G3 CdCl2 (5 mg kg-1) and G4 CdCl2 + Eugenol (5 mg kg-1 + 3 mg kg-1). All the groups were treated with gavage orally for the period of 21 days. After this treatment period, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. The hepatic antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the activities of SOD, Catalase and GST enzymes. The reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl oxidation (PCO) and thiol contents were measured in hepatic tissues. The activities of liver marker enzymes such as ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, TP, albumin, Bilirubin content and LDH were determined to assess the hepatic damage in different groups. Cd induced hepatic inflammation was determined by evaluating the levels of TNF-a, IL-6 and NO. RESULTS: Oral intoxication of Cd for 21 days significantly elevated the level of hepatic markers including activities of LDH, GGT, ALP, ALT, AST and Bilirubin level. The albumin content, reduced GSH level, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly reduced in Cd treated group. The levels of inflammatory markers were significantly elevated in Cd treated group. The eugenol treatment was very effective and it significantly reversed the Cd induced biochemical alterations almost similar to that of control. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that the eugenol possessed very strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential. The co-treatment of eugenol with Cd exhibited protective potential of eugenol against Cd induced toxicity. Eugenol was able to improve the cellular redox system in rats treated with Cd. SN - 1950-6007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33862491/Protective_effect_of_eugenol_on_hepatic_inflammation_and_oxidative_stress_induced_by_cadmium_in_male_rats_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0753-3322(21)00373-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -