Venomous snake bites in Italy: epidemiological and clinical aspects.Trop Med Parasitol. 1988 Mar; 39(1):62-6.TM
From 1980 to 1984, a total of 2,329 people who alleged that they had been bitten by venomous snakes were admitted to 292 Italian hospitals having first aid stations. Three died. Most patients (62%) did not show any symptomatology of envenomation. The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 286 patients, out of 885 exhibiting signs and symptoms of snake bite envenomation, have been studied. The symptoms and signs were: oedema, gastro-intestinal symptoms, pain at the site of the bite, respiratory distress, leucocytosis, CNS depression, shock, fever, cyanosis, exanthema, ecchymoses, incoagulable blood, lymphangitis, melaena, thrombocytopenia, haematuria, and ophthalmoplegia. The bites were located only in the upper or lower limbs. Most were caused by Vipera aspis. The severity of envenomation of the 286 affected patients were: 45% minor, 30% mild, 14% moderate, 8% severe and 1% fatal. Most bites occurred in August. The commonest treatment before and during hospitalization was anti-venin.