Predicting intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among the general population using the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model.BMC Public Health. 2021 04 26; 21(1):804.BP
This study aim to explore the intentions, motivators and barriers of the general public to vaccinate against COVID-19, using both the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model.
An online survey was conducted among Israeli adults aged 18 years and older from May 24 to June 24, 2020. The survey included socio-demographic and health-related questions, questions related to HBM and TPB dimensions, and intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Associations between questionnaire variables and COVID-19 vaccination intention were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Eighty percent of 398 eligible respondents stated their willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine. A unified model including HBM and TPB predictor variables as well as demographic and health-related factors, proved to be a powerful predictor of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine, explaining 78% of the variance (adjusted R squared = 0.78). Men (OR = 4.35, 95% CI 1.58-11.93), educated respondents (OR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.44-8.67) and respondents who had received the seasonal influenza vaccine in the previous year (OR = 3.31, 95% CI 1.22-9.00) stated higher intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Participants were more likely to be willing to get vaccinated if they reported higher levels of perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 2.79-7.22), of perceived severity of COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.58-3.51) and of cues to action (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.38-2.87), according to HBM, and if they reported higher levels of subjective norms (OR = 3.04, 95% CI 2.15-4.30) and self-efficacy (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.54-2.72) according to TPB. Although half of the respondents reported they had not received influenza vaccine last year, 40% of them intended to receive influenza vaccine in the coming winter and 66% of them intended to receive COVID-19 vaccine.
Providing data on the public perspective and predicting intention for COVID-19 vaccination using HBM and TPB is important for health policy makers and healthcare providers and can help better guide compliance as the COVID-19 vaccine becomes available to the public.