Comparative assessment of interventions for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis: A network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.Acta Trop. 2021 Aug; 220:105944.AT
Various interventions including laser therapy, heat therapy, and several drugs have been trialed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Due to the lack of an evidence-based comparison of all these interventions, we carried out the present network meta-analysis.
Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of any interventions in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The proportion of patients with complete cure was the primary outcome. The proportion of lesions cured at the end of treatment, the proportion of lesions with minimal/no response to treatment, and proportion of wounds with minimal/no change were the secondary outcomes. Random-effects modeling was used for generating pooled estimates. Rankogram plot was used for identifying the 'best intervention'. For interventions containing a combination of treatments, backslash (/) has been used for depicting the same.
One-hundred and thirty-one studies were included. Intralesional meglumine, topical paromomycin/gentamicin, topical paromomycin, parenteral sodium stibogluconate, topical honey/intralesional meglumine, topical liposomal amphotericin B, oral zinc sulphate, oral miltefosine, parenteral meglumine, heat therapy, topical liposomal azithromycin, intralesional meglumine/silver dressing, intralesional sodium stibogluconate, parenteral meglumine/intralesional meglumine, oral allopurinol/parenteral meglumine, topical trichloroacetic acid/heat therapy, oral zinc sulphate/oral ketoconazole, topical imiquimod/cryotherapy, intralesional meglumine/cryotherapy, topical herbal extract of Z-HE, parenteral pentamidine, topical trichloroacetic acid/intralesional meglumine, carbon-dioxide laser, topical recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/parenteral meglumine, intralesional dapsone, carbon-dioxide laser/intralesional meglumine, moist wet dressing with sodium hypochlorite, parenteral sodium stibogluconate/intralesional recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, oral dapsone, intralesional sodium stibogluconate/oral ketoconazole, intralesional sodium stibogluconate/parenteral sodium stibogluconate and electrocautery/moist wet dressing with sodium hypochlorite were observed with significantly greater proportion of patients with complete cure compared to placebo/untreated controls. Rankogram analysis revealed that parenteral pentamidine has the highest statistical probability of being the best in the pool.
We observed several interventions to be effective for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, greater caution is required in interpreting the results as the estimates are likely to change with the advent of results from future studies.