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Dynamic and features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Gabon.
Sci Rep. 2021 05 06; 11(1):9672.SR

Abstract

In a context where SARS-CoV-2 population-wide testing is implemented, clinical features and antibody response in those infected have never been documented in Africa. Yet, the information provided by analyzing data from population-wide testing is critical to understand the infection dynamics and devise control strategies. We described clinical features and assessed antibody response in people screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed data from a cohort of 3464 people that we molecularly screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection in our routine activity. We recorded people SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, age, gender, blood types, white blood cells (WBC), symptoms, chronic disease status and time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR conversion from positive to negative. We calculated the age-based distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, analyzed the proportion and the spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, in a nested sub-study, we screened 83 COVID-19 patients and 319 contact-cases for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Males and females accounted for respectively 51% and 49% of people screened. The studied population median and mean age were both 39 years. 592 out of 3464 people (17.2%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection with males and females representing, respectively, 53% and 47%. The median and mean ages of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects were 37 and 38 years respectively. The lowest rate of infection (8%) was observed in the elderly (aged > 60). The rate of SARS-Cov-2 infection in both young (18-35 years old) and middle-aged adults (36-60 years old) was around 20%. The analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection age distribution showed that middle-aged adults accounted for 54.7% of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons, followed respectively by young adults (33.7%), children (7.7%) and elderly (3.8%). 68% (N = 402) of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons were asymptomatic, 26.3% (N = 156) had influenza-like symptoms, 2.7% (N = 16) had influenza-like symptoms associated with anosmia and ageusia, 2% (N = 11) had dyspnea and 1% (N = 7) had respiratory failure, which resulted in death. Data also showed that 12% of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects, had chronic diseases. Hypertension, diabetes, and asthma were the top concurrent chronic diseases representing respectively 58%, 25% and 12% of recorded chronic diseases. Half of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were cured within 14 days following the initiation of the anti-COVID-19 treatment protocol. 78.3% of COVID-19 patients and 55% of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed negative contact-cases were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients with severe-to-critical illness have higher leukocytes, higher neutrophils and lower lymphocyte counts contrarily to asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate illness. Neutrophilic leukopenia was more prevalent in asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate disease for 4 weeks after diagnosis (27.1-42.1%). In Patients with severe-to-critical illness, neutrophilic leukocytosis or neutrophilia (35.6-50%) and lymphocytopenia (20-40%) were more frequent. More than 60% of participants were blood type O. It is also important to note that infection rate was slightly higher among A and B blood types compared with type O. In this African setting, young and middle-aged adults are most likely driving community transmission of COVID-19. The rate of critical disease is relatively low. The high rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies observed in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative contact cases suggests that subclinical infection may have been overlooked in our setting.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Physiologie, Faculté Des Sciences, Université Des Sciences Et Techniques de Masuku, Franceville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Hôpital Des Instruction des Armes D'Akanda, Libreville-Nord, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Physiologie, Faculté Des Sciences, Université Des Sciences Et Techniques de Masuku, Franceville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, Libreville, Gabon. Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, BP 242, Lambaréné, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon. Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7505, South Africa.Pôle mère, CHU- Mère-Enfant Fondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Pôle enfant, CHU- Mère-Enfant Fondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon. Département de Biologie Cellulaire and Moléculaire-Génétique, Faculté de Médecine, Université Des Sciences de La Santé, Libreville, Gabon.Pôle enfant, CHU- Mère-Enfant Fondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Pôle mère, CHU- Mère-Enfant Fondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Pôle enfant, CHU- Mère-Enfant Fondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon.Unité de Recherche et Diagnostics Spécialisé, Service Laboratoire, CHU-Mère-EnfantFondation Jeanne EBORI, Libreville, Gabon. joel.djoba@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

33958601

Citation

Mveang Nzoghe, Amandine, et al. "Dynamic and Features of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Gabon." Scientific Reports, vol. 11, no. 1, 2021, p. 9672.
Mveang Nzoghe A, Padzys GS, Maloupazoa Siawaya AC, et al. Dynamic and features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Gabon. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):9672.
Mveang Nzoghe, A., Padzys, G. S., Maloupazoa Siawaya, A. C., Kandet Yattara, M., Leboueny, M., Avome Houechenou, R. M., Bongho, E. C., Mba-Mezeme, C., Mvoundza Ndjindji, O., Biteghe-Bi-Essone, J. C., Boulende, A., Essone, P. N., Ndong Sima, C. A. A., Minkobame, U., Zang Eyi, C., Ndeboko, B., Voloc, A., Meye, J. F., Ategbo, S., & Djoba Siawaya, J. F. (2021). Dynamic and features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Gabon. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9672. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87043-y
Mveang Nzoghe A, et al. Dynamic and Features of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Gabon. Sci Rep. 2021 05 6;11(1):9672. PubMed PMID: 33958601.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dynamic and features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Gabon. AU - Mveang Nzoghe,Amandine, AU - Padzys,Guy-Stephan, AU - Maloupazoa Siawaya,Anicet Christel, AU - Kandet Yattara,Marisca, AU - Leboueny,Marielle, AU - Avome Houechenou,Rotimi Myrabelle, AU - Bongho,Eliode Cyrien, AU - Mba-Mezeme,Cedrick, AU - Mvoundza Ndjindji,Ofilia, AU - Biteghe-Bi-Essone,Jean Claude, AU - Boulende,Alain, AU - Essone,Paulin N, AU - Ndong Sima,Carene Anne Alene, AU - Minkobame,Ulysse, AU - Zang Eyi,Carinne, AU - Ndeboko,Bénédicte, AU - Voloc,Alexandru, AU - Meye,Jean-François, AU - Ategbo,Simon, AU - Djoba Siawaya,Joel Fleury, Y1 - 2021/05/06/ PY - 2020/12/04/received PY - 2021/03/23/accepted PY - 2021/5/7/entrez PY - 2021/5/8/pubmed PY - 2021/5/27/medline SP - 9672 EP - 9672 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 11 IS - 1 N2 - In a context where SARS-CoV-2 population-wide testing is implemented, clinical features and antibody response in those infected have never been documented in Africa. Yet, the information provided by analyzing data from population-wide testing is critical to understand the infection dynamics and devise control strategies. We described clinical features and assessed antibody response in people screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed data from a cohort of 3464 people that we molecularly screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection in our routine activity. We recorded people SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, age, gender, blood types, white blood cells (WBC), symptoms, chronic disease status and time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR conversion from positive to negative. We calculated the age-based distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, analyzed the proportion and the spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, in a nested sub-study, we screened 83 COVID-19 patients and 319 contact-cases for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Males and females accounted for respectively 51% and 49% of people screened. The studied population median and mean age were both 39 years. 592 out of 3464 people (17.2%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection with males and females representing, respectively, 53% and 47%. The median and mean ages of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects were 37 and 38 years respectively. The lowest rate of infection (8%) was observed in the elderly (aged > 60). The rate of SARS-Cov-2 infection in both young (18-35 years old) and middle-aged adults (36-60 years old) was around 20%. The analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection age distribution showed that middle-aged adults accounted for 54.7% of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons, followed respectively by young adults (33.7%), children (7.7%) and elderly (3.8%). 68% (N = 402) of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons were asymptomatic, 26.3% (N = 156) had influenza-like symptoms, 2.7% (N = 16) had influenza-like symptoms associated with anosmia and ageusia, 2% (N = 11) had dyspnea and 1% (N = 7) had respiratory failure, which resulted in death. Data also showed that 12% of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects, had chronic diseases. Hypertension, diabetes, and asthma were the top concurrent chronic diseases representing respectively 58%, 25% and 12% of recorded chronic diseases. Half of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were cured within 14 days following the initiation of the anti-COVID-19 treatment protocol. 78.3% of COVID-19 patients and 55% of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed negative contact-cases were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients with severe-to-critical illness have higher leukocytes, higher neutrophils and lower lymphocyte counts contrarily to asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate illness. Neutrophilic leukopenia was more prevalent in asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate disease for 4 weeks after diagnosis (27.1-42.1%). In Patients with severe-to-critical illness, neutrophilic leukocytosis or neutrophilia (35.6-50%) and lymphocytopenia (20-40%) were more frequent. More than 60% of participants were blood type O. It is also important to note that infection rate was slightly higher among A and B blood types compared with type O. In this African setting, young and middle-aged adults are most likely driving community transmission of COVID-19. The rate of critical disease is relatively low. The high rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies observed in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative contact cases suggests that subclinical infection may have been overlooked in our setting. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/33958601/Dynamic_and_features_of_SARS_CoV_2_infection_in_Gabon_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -