Stigmasterol isolated from the chloroform fraction of Adenopus breviflorus Benth fruit induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in rat liver.J Complement Integr Med. 2021 May 10; 18(4):737-744.JC
Decoction of Adenopus breviflorus fruit is used in folkloric medicine for treating dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. Phytochemicals from A. breviflorus may be potent in inducing mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis via the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. Therefore, this study investigated the in vitro effects of stigmasterol isolated from the chloroform fraction of A. breviflorus (CFAB) and also the increasing concentration of CFAB on the opening of rat liver mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore.
Fractionation of CFAB on column chromatography yielded a needle-like crystal which structure was elucidated by standard spectroscopic techniques. The effects of stigmasterol and CFAB on MPT pore opening were assayed spectrophotometrically. Also, the effect of CFAB on mitochondrial ATPase (mATPase) activity and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release were determined.
Stigmasterol isolated from CFAB induced MPT pore opening significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the control. Similarly, CFAB significantly (p<0.05) induced MPT pore opening in rat liver mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence and absence of the triggering agent - calcium ion. Furthermore, the increasing concentration of CFAB significantly (p<0.05) stimulated mitochondrial ATPase (mATPase) activity and Cyt c release in a concentration-dependent manner.
The study showed that stigmasterol isolated from the chloroform fraction of A. breviflorus is a potent inducer of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Also, the study further revealed that CFAB possesses potent bioactive compounds which can induce the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, activation of mitochondrial ATPase (mATPase) activity and cytochrome c release.