Choanal atresia and associated anomalies: the CHARGE association.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1988 May; 15(2):129-35.IJ
Over the past few years there has been increasing awareness of the association of choanal atresia with other congenital defects. Thirty-one cases of choanal atresia were reviewed and other congenital anomalies were documented in 19 patients. These other anomalies were identified in 75% of the 20 patients with bilateral choanal atresia but in only 36% of the 11 patients with unilateral choanal atresia. Associated defects largely occurred in a predictable pattern described by the CHARGE mnemonic: C-coloboma, H-heart disease, A-atresia choanae, R-retarded growth, G-genital hypoplasia, E-ear defects. The implications of the CHARGE association in the management of patients with choanal atresia are discussed.