Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations -United States, 2018.MMWR Surveill Summ. 2021 05 14; 70(3):1-26.MS
Adults are at risk for illness, hospitalization, disability and, in some cases, death from vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly influenza and pneumococcal disease. CDC recommends vaccinations for adults on the basis of age, health conditions, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults remains low.
August 2017-June 2018 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2018 (for pneumococcal, herpes zoster, tetanus and diphtheria [Td]/tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination).
DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. NHIS's objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Adult receipt of influenza, pneumococcal, herpes zoster, Td/Tdap, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and at least 1 dose of HPV vaccines was assessed. Estimates were derived for a new composite adult vaccination quality measure and by selected demographic and access-to-care characteristics (e.g., age, race/ethnicity, indication for vaccination, travel history [travel to countries where hepatitis infections are endemic], health insurance status, contacts with physicians, nativity, and citizenship). Trends in adult vaccination were assessed during 2010-2018.
Coverage for the adult age-appropriate composite measure was low in all age groups. Racial and ethnic differences in coverage persisted for all vaccinations, with lower coverage for most vaccinations among non-White compared with non-Hispanic White adults. Linear trend tests indicated coverage increased from 2010 to 2018 for most vaccines in this report. Few adults aged ≥19 years had received all age-appropriate vaccines, including influenza vaccination, regardless of whether inclusion of Tdap (13.5%) or inclusion of any tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine (20.2%) receipt was measured. Coverage among adults for influenza vaccination during the 2017-18 season (46.1%) was similar to the estimate for the 2016-17 season (45.4%), and coverage for pneumococcal (adults aged ≥65 years [69.0%]), herpes zoster (adults aged ≥50 years and aged ≥60 years [24.1% and 34.5%, respectively]), tetanus (adults aged ≥19 years [62.9%]), Tdap (adults aged ≥19 years [31.2%]), hepatitis A (adults aged ≥19 years [11.9%]), and HPV (females aged 19-26 years [52.8%]) vaccination in 2018 were similar to the estimates for 2017. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years and health care personnel (HCP) aged ≥19 years increased 4.2 and 6.7 percentage points to 30.0% and 67.2%, respectively, from 2017. HPV vaccination coverage among males aged 19-26 years increased 5.2 percentage points to 26.3% from the 2017 estimate. Overall, HPV vaccination coverage among females aged 19-26 years did not increase, but coverage among Hispanic females aged 19-26 years increased 10.8 percentage points to 49.6% from the 2017 estimate. Coverage for the following vaccines was lower among adults without health insurance compared with those with health insurance: influenza vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years, 19-49 years, and 50-64 years), pneumococcal vaccine (among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk), Td vaccine (among all age groups), Tdap vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years and 19-64 years), hepatitis A vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years overall and among travelers aged ≥19 years), hepatitis B vaccine (among adults aged ≥19 years and 19-49 years and among travelers aged ≥19 years), herpes zoster vaccine (among adults aged ≥60 years), and HPV vaccine (among males and females aged 19-26 years). Adults who reported having a usual place for health care generally reported receipt of recommended vaccinations more often than those who did not have such a place, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Vaccination coverage was higher among adults reporting ≥1 physician contact during the preceding year compared with those who had not visited a physician during the preceding year, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Even among adults who had health insurance and ≥10 physician contacts during the preceding year, depending on the vaccine, 20.1%-87.5% reported not having received vaccinations that were recommended either for all persons or for those with specific indications. Overall, vaccination coverage among U.S.-born adults was significantly higher than that of foreign-born adults, including influenza vaccination (aged ≥19 years), pneumococcal vaccination (all ages), tetanus vaccination (all ages), Tdap vaccination (all ages), hepatitis B vaccination (aged ≥19 years and 19-49 years and travelers aged ≥19 years), herpes zoster vaccination (all ages), and HPV vaccination among females aged 19-26 years. Vaccination coverage also varied by citizenship status and years living in the United States.
NHIS data indicate that many adults remain unprotected against vaccine-preventable diseases. Coverage for the adult age-appropriate composite measures was low in all age groups. Individual adult vaccination coverage remained low as well, but modest gains occurred in vaccination coverage for hepatitis B (among adults aged ≥19 years and HCP aged ≥19 years), and HPV (among males aged 19-26 years and Hispanic females aged 19-26 years). Coverage for other vaccines and groups with Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices vaccination indications did not improve from 2017. Although HPV vaccination coverage among males aged 19-26 years and Hispanic females aged 19-26 years increased, approximately 50% of females aged 19-26 years and 70% of males aged 19-26 years remained unvaccinated. Racial/ethnic vaccination differences persisted for routinely recommended adult vaccines. Having health insurance coverage, having a usual place for health care, and having ≥1 physician contacts during the preceding 12 months were associated with higher vaccination coverage; however, these factors alone were not associated with optimal adult vaccination coverage, and findings indicate missed opportunities to vaccinate remained.
PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS
Substantial improvement in adult vaccination uptake is needed to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Following the Standards for Adult Immunization Practice (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/adults/for-practice/standards/index.html), all providers should routinely assess adults' vaccination status at every clinical encounter, strongly recommend appropriate vaccines, either offer needed vaccines or refer their patients to another provider who can administer the needed vaccines, and document vaccinations received by their patients in an immunization information system.