Alcohol use and its determinants among adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Harm Reduct J. 2021 05 17; 18(1):55.HR
Alcohol use is a common practice of almost all communities worldwide and it is more common among persons with HIV infection. Alcohol consumption among people with HIV/AIDS may result in poor treatment adherence, further immunity suppression and increase the risk of comorbid illness (diseases) which collectively diminish the anti-retroviral therapy responses. Although there are separate studies conducted regarding alcohol use among people with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, the finding results are highly variable and inconsistent. Therefore, conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis has a paramount importance to show the pooled prevalence of alcohol use and to identify its determinants among people with HIV/AIDS.
A systematic search of electronic databases of PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Hinnari and Cochrane library was employed. Additionally, the grey literature was searched from Google and Google Scholar. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft Excel . STATA-version 14 statistical software was used for analysis. Heterogeneity of primary studies was found as evaluated using the I2 test result. As a result, a random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of alcohol use.
A total of 22 primary studies which comprises 8,368 study participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of lifetime, current and hazardous alcohol use among HIV patients in Ethiopia were 36.42% [95% CI (19.96, 52.89)], 19.00% [95% CI (12.98, 25.01)] and 21.64% [95% CI (12.72, 30.55)], respectively. Khat chewing [OR = 3.53, (95% CI 1.31, 9.51)] and cigarette smoking [OR = 7.04, (95% CI 3.53, 14.04)] were found as statistically significant determinants of hazardous alcohol use among people with HIV infection.
The result of this review showed that alcohol drinking is highly practiced among people with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. The magnitude of alcohol use was highly variable based on the screening methods used to measure alcohol use. Comorbid substance use (khat and cigarette) increases the risk of alcohol consumption among HIV patients. This suggests a need for designing appropriate and culturally applicable intervention programs and policy responses. Trial registration PROSPERO 2019, "CRD42019132524."