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Conjunctival melanoma: New insights in tumour genetics and immunology, leading to new therapeutic options.
Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022 01; 86:100971.PR

Abstract

Recent developments in oncology have led to a better molecular and cellular understanding of cancer, and the introduction of novel therapies. Conjunctival melanoma (CoM) is a rare but potentially devastating disease. A better understanding of CoM, leading to the development of novel therapies, is urgently needed. CoM is characterized by mutations that have also been identified in cutaneous melanoma, e.g. in BRAF, NRAS and TERT. These mutations are distinct from the mutations found in uveal melanoma (UM), affecting genes such as GNAQ, GNA11, and BAP1. Targeted therapies that are successful in cutaneous melanoma may therefore be useful in CoM. A recent breakthrough in the treatment of patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma was the development of immunotherapy. While immunotherapy is currently sparsely effective in intraocular tumours such as UM, the similarities between CoM and cutaneous melanoma (including in their immunological tumour micro environment) provide hope for the application of immunotherapy in CoM, and preliminary clinical data are indeed emerging to support this use. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding CoM, with a focus on the genetic and immunologic understanding. We elaborate on the distinct position of CoM in contrast to other types of melanoma, and explain how new insights in the pathophysiology of this disease guide the development of new, personalized, treatments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: n.j.brouwer@lumc.nl.Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medica Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Pathology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: r.verdijk@erasmusmc.nl.Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Pathology, Eye Pathology Section, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: sthe@sund.ku.dk.Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: m.marinkovic@lumc.nl.Department of Plastic Surgery, Orbital Oncology and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address: besmaeli@mdanderson.org.Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: m.j.jager@lumc.nl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34015548

Citation

Brouwer, Niels J., et al. "Conjunctival Melanoma: New Insights in Tumour Genetics and Immunology, Leading to New Therapeutic Options." Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 86, 2022, p. 100971.
Brouwer NJ, Verdijk RM, Heegaard S, et al. Conjunctival melanoma: New insights in tumour genetics and immunology, leading to new therapeutic options. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022;86:100971.
Brouwer, N. J., Verdijk, R. M., Heegaard, S., Marinkovic, M., Esmaeli, B., & Jager, M. J. (2022). Conjunctival melanoma: New insights in tumour genetics and immunology, leading to new therapeutic options. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 86, 100971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2021.100971
Brouwer NJ, et al. Conjunctival Melanoma: New Insights in Tumour Genetics and Immunology, Leading to New Therapeutic Options. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022;86:100971. PubMed PMID: 34015548.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Conjunctival melanoma: New insights in tumour genetics and immunology, leading to new therapeutic options. AU - Brouwer,Niels J, AU - Verdijk,Robert M, AU - Heegaard,Steffen, AU - Marinkovic,Marina, AU - Esmaeli,Bita, AU - Jager,Martine J, Y1 - 2021/05/17/ PY - 2020/10/21/received PY - 2021/04/18/revised PY - 2021/04/19/accepted PY - 2021/5/21/pubmed PY - 2021/5/21/medline PY - 2021/5/20/entrez KW - Conjunctival melanoma KW - Eye disease KW - Immunotherapy KW - Ocular oncology KW - Oncogenetics KW - Targeted therapy SP - 100971 EP - 100971 JF - Progress in retinal and eye research JO - Prog Retin Eye Res VL - 86 N2 - Recent developments in oncology have led to a better molecular and cellular understanding of cancer, and the introduction of novel therapies. Conjunctival melanoma (CoM) is a rare but potentially devastating disease. A better understanding of CoM, leading to the development of novel therapies, is urgently needed. CoM is characterized by mutations that have also been identified in cutaneous melanoma, e.g. in BRAF, NRAS and TERT. These mutations are distinct from the mutations found in uveal melanoma (UM), affecting genes such as GNAQ, GNA11, and BAP1. Targeted therapies that are successful in cutaneous melanoma may therefore be useful in CoM. A recent breakthrough in the treatment of patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma was the development of immunotherapy. While immunotherapy is currently sparsely effective in intraocular tumours such as UM, the similarities between CoM and cutaneous melanoma (including in their immunological tumour micro environment) provide hope for the application of immunotherapy in CoM, and preliminary clinical data are indeed emerging to support this use. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding CoM, with a focus on the genetic and immunologic understanding. We elaborate on the distinct position of CoM in contrast to other types of melanoma, and explain how new insights in the pathophysiology of this disease guide the development of new, personalized, treatments. SN - 1873-1635 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34015548/Conjunctival_melanoma:_New_insights_in_tumour_genetics_and_immunology,_leading_to_new_therapeutic_options. L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1350-9462(21)00032-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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