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Are long-term exposure studies needed? Short-term toxicokinetic model predicts the uptake of metal nanoparticles in earthworms after nine months.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Sep 01; 220:112371.EE

Abstract

Uptake of most metal nanoparticles (NPs) in organisms is assumed to be mainly driven by the bioavailability of the released ions, as has been verified in controlled and short-term exposure tests. However, the changeability of NPs and the dynamic processes which NPs undergo in the soil environment, bring uncertainty regarding their interactions with soil organisms over a long period of time. To assess the potential impacts of long-term exposure scenarios on the toxicokinetic of metal NPs, earthworms Eisenia fetida were exposed to soils spiked with pristine Ag-NP, aged Ag-NP (Ag2S-NP) and ionic Ag for nine months, and results were compared to those from a similar short-term (28 days) experiment, conducted under similar conditions. Overall, there were no statistical differences between long-term accumulation patterns in earthworms exposed to pristine Ag-NP and AgNO3, while for Ag2S-NP, the amount of Ag internalized after 9 months was five times lower than for the other treatments. Average Ag concentrations in soil pore water in all treatments did not change over time, however the soil pH decreased and electrical conductivity increased in all treatments. Metallothionein concentrations in exposed earthworms were not statistically different from levels in untreated earthworms. Finally, the short-term toxicokinetic models predicted the bioaccumulation in earthworms exposed to Ag-NP, AgNO3 after nine months on the whole. Although the bioaccumulation for Ag2S-NPs was somewhat under-predicted, the rate of accumulation of Ag2S-NPs is much lower than that of Ag-NPs or AgNO3 and thus potentially of lower concern. Nevertheless, better understanding about the exposure kinetics of Ag2S-NP would help to address potential nano-specific toxicokinetic and toxicodynamics, also of other sulfidized metal NPs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: marta.baccaro@hotmail.it.Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34052759

Citation

Baccaro, Marta, et al. "Are Long-term Exposure Studies Needed? Short-term Toxicokinetic Model Predicts the Uptake of Metal Nanoparticles in Earthworms After Nine Months." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 220, 2021, p. 112371.
Baccaro M, van den Berg JHJ, van den Brink NW. Are long-term exposure studies needed? Short-term toxicokinetic model predicts the uptake of metal nanoparticles in earthworms after nine months. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021;220:112371.
Baccaro, M., van den Berg, J. H. J., & van den Brink, N. W. (2021). Are long-term exposure studies needed? Short-term toxicokinetic model predicts the uptake of metal nanoparticles in earthworms after nine months. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 220, 112371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112371
Baccaro M, van den Berg JHJ, van den Brink NW. Are Long-term Exposure Studies Needed? Short-term Toxicokinetic Model Predicts the Uptake of Metal Nanoparticles in Earthworms After Nine Months. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Sep 1;220:112371. PubMed PMID: 34052759.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Are long-term exposure studies needed? Short-term toxicokinetic model predicts the uptake of metal nanoparticles in earthworms after nine months. AU - Baccaro,Marta, AU - van den Berg,Johannes H J, AU - van den Brink,Nico W, Y1 - 2021/05/27/ PY - 2020/12/26/received PY - 2021/05/04/revised PY - 2021/05/23/accepted PY - 2021/5/31/pubmed PY - 2021/7/14/medline PY - 2021/5/30/entrez KW - Dissolution KW - Long-term exposure KW - Metallothionein KW - Silver nanoparticles KW - Soil pore water KW - Uptake SP - 112371 EP - 112371 JF - Ecotoxicology and environmental safety JO - Ecotoxicol Environ Saf VL - 220 N2 - Uptake of most metal nanoparticles (NPs) in organisms is assumed to be mainly driven by the bioavailability of the released ions, as has been verified in controlled and short-term exposure tests. However, the changeability of NPs and the dynamic processes which NPs undergo in the soil environment, bring uncertainty regarding their interactions with soil organisms over a long period of time. To assess the potential impacts of long-term exposure scenarios on the toxicokinetic of metal NPs, earthworms Eisenia fetida were exposed to soils spiked with pristine Ag-NP, aged Ag-NP (Ag2S-NP) and ionic Ag for nine months, and results were compared to those from a similar short-term (28 days) experiment, conducted under similar conditions. Overall, there were no statistical differences between long-term accumulation patterns in earthworms exposed to pristine Ag-NP and AgNO3, while for Ag2S-NP, the amount of Ag internalized after 9 months was five times lower than for the other treatments. Average Ag concentrations in soil pore water in all treatments did not change over time, however the soil pH decreased and electrical conductivity increased in all treatments. Metallothionein concentrations in exposed earthworms were not statistically different from levels in untreated earthworms. Finally, the short-term toxicokinetic models predicted the bioaccumulation in earthworms exposed to Ag-NP, AgNO3 after nine months on the whole. Although the bioaccumulation for Ag2S-NPs was somewhat under-predicted, the rate of accumulation of Ag2S-NPs is much lower than that of Ag-NPs or AgNO3 and thus potentially of lower concern. Nevertheless, better understanding about the exposure kinetics of Ag2S-NP would help to address potential nano-specific toxicokinetic and toxicodynamics, also of other sulfidized metal NPs. SN - 1090-2414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34052759/Are_long_term_exposure_studies_needed_Short_term_toxicokinetic_model_predicts_the_uptake_of_metal_nanoparticles_in_earthworms_after_nine_months_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0147-6513(21)00483-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -